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현서 박

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of PETROLEUM


Petroleum products are easier to produce on large scale.
The petroleum fuel is more useful than other fuel. (It has calorie)
The oil based production destroy the environment. 1. Create the co2 2. It makes the 'Green House effect'
oil based products
All over the world, almost of the factory products are based on oil (petroleum)
Even wood desk need petroleum to make it.
What kinds of products are based on oil (petroleum)
Than how much is the oil??

1. Dubai - 103.92 $/Barrel
2. Canada(Brandt) - 107.33 $/Barrel
3. WTI - 103.74 $/Barrel
The price of petroleum is very flouting especially in retail.

The crude oil price
retail gasoline
1. Abu Dhabi - 0.46 $/L
2. America - 0.95 $/L
3. Korea - 1.81 $/L
4. Norway - 2.56 $/L
5. Venezuela - 0.03 $/L
the highest retail gasoline (Norway) price is 85 times more than most cheap (Venezuela) one

It is because of tax and transfer fee.
petroleum industry
What is the petroleum industry?
- The petroleum industry includes the processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing petroleum products.
Way to produce the petroleum
Future of petroleum industry
Today the petroleum is the most common energy resource. However the clean energy is developing right now such as Solar energy. Therefore the future of petroleum industry is not really good.
History of UAE petroleum industry
UAE’s first refinery opened at Umm Al Nar
ADCO established to operate onshore concessions
The National Gas Shipping Company Limited (NGSCO) is established
ADNOC signs agreement for exploration of Shah sour gas reserves
First exports of onshore and off shore oil
- The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) was formed
Oil discovered in the offshore Umm Shaif field in Abu Dhabi
Before extract the crude oil, people need to find where is it.

1. use the electronic wave
2. use the gravity
After exploration people need to drill the ground
The pipe should drill 1~4 km to arrive in crude oil.
The crude oil should transport to refining facilities
In the process, crude oil is separate into a lot of different oils such as gasoline and diesel
-The petroleum is the main source of money
Other oil product country
-Other oil product country such as America or Canada has a lot of installation to produce the petroleum products such as plastic.
difference between UAE and other oil product country
-The petroleum product is subordinate
-UAE doesn't have enough installation to produce the petroleum products.

Petroleum makes a lot of environment pollution such as air pollution
and it makes 'Green House Effect'
Example of pollution
The technology
in petroleum industry
In the petroleum industry, it needs a lot of technology. Such as exploration technology
petroleum transport technology
This technology has a lot of way
Petroleum drilling technology
-This technology includes exploration, extraction technology
Explorting - This is the technology to find the location of crude oil.
1.The most common way is using electronic waves. Like the X-ray, the electronic wave shows 3D pictures.(Much cheaper than method 2)
2. Drill the ground and explore it.
Extracting - This technology is extract the oil from under ground
1. Drill the ground to crude oil and drove the pipe and extract the crude oil with the pump
2. The empty place after extract the oil, fill it with concrete or water. It can make easy to extract the oil because it makes low inside pressure underground.
1. Pipe
-This method is cheapest way.
-In the pipe, the the speed of crude oil is 6m/s.

2. Oil tanker (ship)
-This method has very big scale.
-This method takes a lot of time.

3. Tank truck
-This method has small scale.
-This is expensive way.
-This method can carry the petroleum anywhere which has a road.
petroleum refining
The crude oil can't be used as fuel or other products. So oil should be separated. Such as gasoline or diesel
1. Heat the crude oil as high as 600 degree
2. Use the difference of boiling point. Separate the crude oil. (gasoline, diesel, lamp oil, LPG, LNG, wax, paraffin, asphalt...)
Make the plastic
After refining the oil, some of them are used as fuel and some of them are used as other way such as plastic. Than how the petroleum can change into plastic?
1. Separate the petroleum as gas and liquid form. Then many kinds of objects(gas) will be made.

2. Make the specific objects react with the catalyst such as chlorine, oxygen or nitrogen in high pressure.

3. The plastic will be made as a product. The different kinds of plastics will be made if the catalyst change. For example, if the catalyst is chlorine, the PVC will be made. If the catalyst is oxygen, the PET will be made.
The petroleum cloth such as nylon has very similar process to make
Explanation) UAE has only oil extract and refining installation.
What kinds of pollution
1. Air pollution
2. Land pollution
3. Light pollution
4. Noise pollution
5. Water pollution
There are many kinds of pollutions. However the petroleum is cause of Air pollution, Land pollution and Water pollution
Because of petroleum
- People use the petroleum products.
- petroleum should be extracted.
- Petroleum product should be transported.
Air pollution
What is the Air pollution?
- The Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the Earth's atmosphere
Land pollution
What is the Land pollution?
- The Land pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change
Water pollution
What is the Water pollution?
-The Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
Because of the petroleum and
petroleum industry, people use a lot
of people use a lot of petroleum and
when people use the it always CO2
or other harmful gas. And it will make Air
When we extract the petroleum. The ground should be drilled. And because of petroleum products such as plastic( plastic need few hundred years to go back to natural.
Some of the crude oil is exist under the ocean. So when crude oil is extracted, some of the oil can be outflow. Therefore the water can be polluted.
The next part of the process is to remove the crude oil through the pipe.
How we rely on petroleum
In every day life we can't do anythings without petroleum. We use the petroleum as fuel, plastics, clothes. Therefore if there are no petroleum. We can't use transportation which is based on petroleum fuel, factory products, and even clothes.
Work Hazard
In oil(petroleum) industry, there are a lot of work hazard for workers.
On the oil extracting ship there are a lot of risk of fire. And it's hard to extinguish the fire because the ship is located middle of ocean.
In the plastic produce factory, there is a lot of harmful gases. It can be damage in worker's health.
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