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Copy of Textiles and Society - A historical perspective
Transcript of Copy of Textiles and Society - A historical perspective
* Water and
* Protection in the form of clothing and shelter.
Throughout time these needs have been met in different ways depending upon the technology available. Textiles have played a major role in our quest to protect ourselves since prehistoric days when people used animal skins, for example, to protect their bodies from the sun, cold, wind and rain. Animal skins were used for clothing and shelter. These were chewed and beaten to make them soft and supple. They were then moulded to fit different shapes and sizes depending on whether they were to be used as clothing or shelter
People discovered that by tearing the skins they could create more even shapes and sizes, thus meeting more of their needs. They began to sew the pieces together, using needles made from thorns or bones and threads made from grass or sinews. The sinews where dried after being removed fro animals killed for food and skins One of the seven wonders of the world of the ancient, the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza was built by the Egyptians, approximately 2500 years before the birth of Christ. It is thought that the ancient Egyptians were very clever people who made use of well-developed technology
This was also evident in the Egyptians' use of textiles. They used spindles to make yarns and looms to weave fabric and were known to use both horizontal and vertical looms to create different fabric types
Ramie and wool fibres were used to spin very fine yarns. Flax fibres were also greatly used.
Egyptians used mineral and vegetable dyes to create textile products in a variety of colours. Historical Periods Prehistoric times Egyptian Times Roman times The Romans were experts in wool manufacture. They were able to shear sheep and make felts
They used spindles and looms similar to those used by Egyptians to spin fibres and make woven fabrics
They also used mineral and vegetable dyes to change the colour of fibres, yarns and fabric The dark ages The Dark Ages brought poverty, disease, war and invasions. Against such a background, the textile industry made very little progress
Women manufactured textiles by hand from home. The goods they created met the needs of their families for clothing and shelter. Fabric and equipment were scarce so people were forced to recycle and use whatever they could.
Wool, silk, linen and cotton where used. The 11th and 12th Century There was an upward trend in economic conditions, which meant more money was available. This led to a new demand for fashionable clothing.
The growth of villages created the need for craftsmen who manufactured textile goods for people in society.
Fulling stocks were a major technological development at this time. These were the first machines used in cloth or fabric making that were driven by water. They were used to finish wool cloths in such a way as to make them better insulators of heat and more durable. As a result, such clothes were better to wear and, of course, were in great demand The 13th and 14th centuries The Indian spinning wheel increased the amount of fibre that could be spun at any one time. This device was also known as the charka and was used to spin short fibres
wool was the major fibre used during this time
Patents were developed. These were documents that gave people who originated useful ideas the sole right to produce their ideas. Anyone else who wanted to use the idea had to pay the person who owned the patent. Owning a patent was potentially lucrative, so many people tried to come up with intentions and patent them before others thought of them The 15th Century The marketing of textiles was increased. Manufacturers made goods to meet consumer demand and advertised their products in the hope of selling as much as they could
Treadle-operated spinning wheels were a major breakthrough and greatly increased yarn production The 16th and 17th centuries In 1589 a basic knitting machine called a stocking frame was invented, which increased the production of knitted fabric
In the early 1600s the blue vegetable dye indigo became widely used. This dye is still used today to colour textiles, especially fibres used in denim cloth
There was talk of making a fibre that could imitate silk The 18th and 19th centuries During the 18th century many technological developments occurred that changed the face of the textile industry. These included
1733 - a flying shuttle invented by John Kay. This greatly increased the production of woven fabrics by allowing the weft fibres to be passed under and over the warp fibres at much greater speeds than by hand
1764 - the Spinning Jenny, invented by James Hargreaves. This was the first spinning machine not operated by hand and was a major breakthrough in the textile industry
1769 - The Water Frame spinning machine, invented by Richard Arkwright. It was driven by water and created a finer more even yarn
1775 - A warp knitting machine was invented
1779 - The Mule, invented by Samuel Crompton. This was a cross between the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame spinning machine
1864 - Circular knitting, which allowed the production of tubular fabrics. These were used for things such as women's stockings. Early 20th Century 1905 - Viscose artificial silk became commercial
1938 - nylon was announced by E.I Dupont de Nemours and company. This was a major breakthrough in the development of manufactured fibres. Late 20th and early 21st centuries Technological developments provide people with a greater variety of textile products than ever before. The textiles industry is seen as one of the world's biggest industries. It provides the world with ready access to products such as:
non-woven disposable products
numerous different kinds of knitted and woven fabrics
widely available patterns
synthetic dyes in every colour
new patterns and styles
smart yarns with properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity
Social events and trends have also greatly influenced the textile industry in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The revival of past fashions and media coverage of world social events such as royal weddings greatly affect peoples use of textiles. Historical: belonging to the recorded past
Development: the evolution and gradual unfolding of something
Sinew: tough fibrous tissue that joins muscle and bone Did you know:
Drawings of nets and baskets on the walls of ancient caves show the first evidence of the use of weaving Generic: applied to a large group or to an individual as belonging to the group
Trademark: device, word or words that are legally registered as distinguished a manufacturer's goods or services Did you know:
Today, naming an invention involves the development of at least two names. One is the generic or product name. The other is the brand or trademark name Did you know:
During the 14th century in Spain it was fashionable for men to wear false beards, rather like wigs for their faces. False beards enabled men to change the colour and style of their facial hair (or fibres) whenever they pleased, without having to wait for their own beards to grow Did you know:
The news that nylon had been invented was announced on 27th of October 1938 by Charles Stine, who was the vice president of E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company Did you know:
The Akubra hat is an Australian icon, having first appeared in the 1870's. Benjamin Dunkerly is known to have created the hat on a machine he invented to make hats from rabbit fur. Did you know:
Another Australian fashion icon, R.M. Williams, set up his first footwear factory in 1932 in a shed behind his father's house. Did you know:
Names such as Jenny Kee and Collette Dinnigan are Australian fashion icons themselves. These women have roles in defining Australian fashion throughout the last quarter of the 20th century and the start of the 21st century. Answer these Questions:
1. How were animal skins used to make clothing and shelter in prehistoric times?
2. What fibres were used in Egyptian times
3. What were the Romans experts in?
4. Why did the textile industry make very little progress during the dark ages?
5. Name three significant textile events from the Middle Ages.
6. Name two significant technological developments in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Design features throughout history design features and characteristics of textile items throughout history shape fashion. To be 'in fashion' is to be accepted for the things you do, wear and say at the time you do, wear or say them.
In the 1920s, for example, it was fashionable for women to smoke cigarettes. In the 21st century, smoking is seen as a health hazard rather than a fashion statement and is frowned upon by many people. Fashion, design features and clothing Over the years, features of clothing have been used to dictate fashion to such an extent that eras of time can be identified by the design features of people's clothing styles. Fashion, design features and women's underwear "Fashion is a shape, a changing shape, and that shape is mainly, and sometimes even wholly, formed and controlled by what is worn underneath it..." E. Ewing, 1974 When you think about this, this is a very true statement. Over the years, people have changed their shape by wearing garments under their clothes that manipulate their bodies to create certain looks and styles. Fashion designers have used undergarments to change the shape of fashion. Over time, the design features of undergarments have changed from simple to complex to ridiculous to uncomfortable. Women, especially, have been expected to wear some unusual and often uncomfortable undergarments in their quest to be fashionable. It is interesting to look at the changing shapes of women's underwear because women's fashions, more definitely than men's, have seen great changes as a result of their changing outerwear. Fashion: a certain style that is accepted at a particular moment in time Did you know?
Women's figures were distorted by the constant wearing of a tight corset. At one time, it was expected that a man could put his hands around his wife's waist so that his thumbs and middle fingers touched. Consequently, corsets were tightened and women squeezed into them to meet societal expectations. Women's ribs were pushed up and their intestines pushed down, creating a distorted figure. This also had implications during pregnancy when women still wore tight corsets for as long as they could. Historical