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4Ps in 4Es
Transcript of 4Ps in 4Es
(An Analysis of the
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program
What is 4Ps?
strategy of the national government that aims to provide
conditional cash grants
(for 5 years) to the
to allow its members to
develop their own human capabilities
, i.e., health, nutrition and education.
Designed to meet the MDGs
Adopted from successful CCTPs
Cash subsidy with conditionalities
Measuring the 4Ps’ “Integrity”: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Economy and Ethics (4Es)
National Housing Targeting System for
Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR)
1. Geographical Targeting
2. Household Targeting
Impact of 4Ps
B. Before and During Implementation of 4Ps
Related Literature and Studies
Development Goals (MDGs)
Poverty in the Philippines
Coverage and Budget Allocation
Cabudol, Tiffany F.
Cielos, Melvin C.
Santos, Louise Aika A.
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
- "Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud y Alimentacion" / PROGRESA / Oportunidades
- "Bolsa Escola" and "Bolsa Familia"
A.O. No. 16 Series of 2008
(guidelines on the Implementation 4Ps) renamed
“Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino Program”
“Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program”
P6,000 a year or P500/month per household
P3000 for one school year (10 mos.) or P300/month per child. (maximum of 3 children per household)
National Household Targeting System
for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR)
Proxy Means Test
to select the poorest households in the poorest municipalities.
"Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino
Households who are classified as poor based on the NHTS-PR at the time of assessment
Households that have children 0-14 years old and/or have a pregnant woman at the time of assessment
Households that agree to meet conditions specified in the program
family members shall have pre-natal care and that the mother shall give birth with the assistance of skilled and trained health professionals and shall avail of post-natal care thereafter;
years old shall get regular preventive check-ups and vaccines;
years old must attend 85% of the time in pre-school classes;
years old shall undergo deworming twice a year;
Children aged 6-14
must be enrolled in school and must attend 85% of the time; and
Household grantee with their spouse
must attend the Family Development Sessions (FDS) at least once a month.
Aims of 4Ps
improve preventive health care among pregnant women and young children;
increase the enrolment in, and the attendance rate of children in school;
reduce the incidence of child labor;
raise the average consumption rate in food expenditure of households; and
encourage parents to invest in their children’s (and their own) human capital through investments in their health and nutrition, education, and participation in community activities.
As the largest social assistance program in the Philippines, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is assumed to contribute to the poverty reduction in the country. It is also assumed that 4Ps could yield impact on the lives of extremely poor both in the short-run and long-run.
This paper shall examine the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), to know if it truly improves the living conditions of eligible households chosen to benefit from this program, and that, if it was implemented with "integrity".
1. To assess if the 4Ps was implemented with “integrity” as indicated by the conceptual 4Es of integrity: efficiency, effectiveness, economy, and ethics.
To know how the beneficiaries were chosen, and if the criteria was religiously implemented.
To assess the design, targeting mechanism, implementation process, and sub-systems of 4Ps, and if there are any issues regarding these matters.
To determine the geographical coverage of 4Ps.
To determine the number of beneficiaries (households and individuals) who benefit from the 4Ps.
To know if there is an improvement in the well-being of the beneficiaries.
To determine the impact of 4Ps in enrolment rate, cohort survival rate, infant and maternal mortality rate (IMMR), and malnutrition prevalence.
2. To examine if the 4Ps is adequate to help reduce,
if not eradicate poverty, and if it could serve as the
flagship social protection program and poverty
reduction strategy for the Philippines.
Significance of the Study
could provide baseline information for further study and planning for the enhancement of the 4Ps;
could point to policy measures and other directions towards improving the monitoring and evaluation processes of the 4Ps;
could help assess whether or not if the 4Ps has helped realize five of the MDGs;
could help provide indications if the allocated budget for the CCT program really goes to the eligible target beneficiaries;
could be useful for future researchers
both in the academic and public
governance fields, as it shall point to
further research areas and policy
could serve as reference in analyzing
and evaluating other social policies or
programs like the 4Ps.
Number of 4Ps Beneficiaries (2008 to 2013)
Budget Allocated for 4Ps (2008 to 2013)
Poverty Incidence (2006, 2009, and 2012)
Enrolment Rate, Cohort Survival Rate, Maternal and Infant Mortality Rates, and Malnutrition Prevalence (2003 to 2012)
DSWD 4Ps Annual Report (2011, 2012, and 2013)
Secondary materials about 4Ps (2009-2013)
Primary information from survey
and interviews with 4Ps beneficiaries
and administrators in Caloocan and
limited to only two pilot cities (Manila and Caloocan)
of the 4Ps
lack of time since the DSWD gave only two weeks to
conduct surveys and interviews with 4Ps beneficiaries
limited actual time to make a more comprehensive
study because the policy research was conducted in
only five months
Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
“A conceptual framework for understanding the role of cash transfers in social protection”
Discussed that cash transfers are more effective strategy in social protection than the in-kind transfers, and compared cash transfers with other forms of transfer programs and concludes that cash transfers are more preferable than other transfer strategies.
Social Welfare and Development Journal (SWDJ)
“Basic Concepts of Impact Evaluation”
A journal that explains the rationale for doing an impact evaluation and its importance in the monitoring and evaluation of an existing policy or program. It cites impact evaluation designs such as the use of counterfactual and the qualitative impact evaluation
“PROGRESA and Its Impacts on the Welfare of Rural Households in Mexico”
A study conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) that contained a brief discussion about the background and description of the program. It includes the impact evaluation of PROGRESA and explains the two critical elements of the program’s strategy. It also discussed the two significant changes in the previous poverty alleviation programs of Mexico.
“A Conditional Cash Transfer Spot Check”
An article that provides a summary of the study on the implementation of 4Ps conducted by the Social Weather Stations (SWS) for the World Bank (WB): 4Ps in Samar is successful
1. Human Development and Capability Approch
explains how the investment in human capital of the poor people under the CCT program shall make a significant change in their capabilities to do whatever they want to do or to pursue whatever they want to be.
2. Theory of Paternalism
explains how the government’s attitude of caring and its method for securing the welfare of the society comes in the same way as how a father does to his children.
3. Theory of the Samaritan's Dilemma
explains how the cash transfer beneficiaries should spend the cash grants given to them. Since the government provides for them, they can either use the cash transfers to improve their situation or just rely on the program for the rest of their lives.
Design/Targeting Mechanism/Systems/Implementation Processes of 4Ps
Objectives/Targets of the 4Ps
Areas where the 4Ps is implemented
Number of Beneficiaries, 2007-2013
Annual Budget for the 4Ps, 2008-2013
Number of Enrolees in Primary and Secondary Education/Cohort Survival Rates, 2003-2012
Poverty Rate in Areas where the 4Ps is being implemented (2006, 2009 and 2012)
Maternal Mortality, 2008-2012
Infant Mortality, 2003-2012
Malnutrition Prevalence, 2003-2012
Secondary Data Involving the 4Ps
Quantitative and Content Analysis of Secondary Reports/Materials
(Validate through key informant survey)
• Increase in number of beneficiaries
• Increase and/or Decrease in budget implementation
• Increase and/or Decrease in number of areas or area coverage
• Increase in the number of primary education enrolees and cohort survival rate
4Ps' Desired Output/Outcomes
• Attained some degree of self-sufficiency
• Decrease in Poverty Incidence
• Integrity of 4Ps (efficiency, effectiveness, economy, and ethics)
• Decrease in Maternal Mortality
• Decrease in Infant Mortality
• Decrease in Malnutrition Prevalence
Social Welfare and Development Journal (SWDJ)
Impact Evaluation on Conditional Cash Transfer Program”
A journal that provides international evidences about the effectiveness of the CCT programs on alleviating poverty and improving human capital.
survey and Interview Methods
The Study Area: Two pilot cities of 4Ps in NCR (Manila City and Caloocan City)
The Respondents: randomly selected Set 4 (year 2010) 4Ps beneficiaries from 20 randomly selected barangays each of the 2 cities: Caloocan (354 bens.) and Manila (283 bens.)
Randomly selected barangays in
: 101, 118, 128, 123,182, 211, 312, 275, 432 and 581
Randomly selected barangays in
: 8, 14, 18, 28,120, 165, 167, 171, 177 and 188
Formula used to get the sample size per barangay:
Percentage (%) =
Total number of beneficiaries in 2010 per barangay
Population Size (N)/Total number of beneficiaries of
10 barangays per city
Sample Size (n) =
Total number of beneficiaries in 2010 per barangay x
(1) Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
(2) Achieve Universal Primary Education
(3) Reduce Child Mortality
(4) Improve Maternal Health and
(5) Promote Gender Equality
1. Pregnant family members shall have pre-natal care and that the mother shall give birth with the assistance of skilled and trained health professionals and shall avail of post-natal care thereafter;
0-5 years old shall get regular preventive check-ups and vaccines;
3. Children 3-5 years old must attend 85% of the time in pre-school classes;
4. Children 6-14 years old shall undergo deworming twice a year;
5. Children aged 6-14 must be enrolled in school and must attend 85% of the time; and
6. Household grantee with their spouse must attend the Family Development Sessions (FDS) at least once a month.
Partnership with other agencies
DOH, DepEd, DILG, NCIP, NGOs, CSOs, and
Targeting and Implementation Issues
POOR PRIORITIZATION OF THE POOREST PROVINCES
“SIGNIFICANT EXCLUSION” (Reyes and Tabuga, 2012)
Targeting the Poorest Municipalities
1. 50% poverty incidence – saturated
2. below 50% poverty incidence – “pockets of poverty”
A. Experiences of Manila and Caloocan
*Almost all of the respondents belonged to marginalized sector of the economy.
* This affirms that, in the case of Caloocan and Manila, the benefit of the program went to those who needed it most.
*However, there were three (3) respondents, two (2) in Manila and one (1) in Caloocan, who said that they had family members who worked abroad. Furthermore, seven (7) respondents were identified to be private employees (1.57% were mistargeted or could be considered an inclusion error”).
*According to Ms. Cecille Golloso, the officer-in-charge who monitors 4Ps in Barangay 128 in Manila, such cases were unavoidable.
Summary of Findings & Conclusion
Such observations and trends described above indicate that after five (5) years of implementation, minimal impact was gained from the 4Ps.
not as effective as advertised
not efficient as advertised
some breaches in ethics
Therefore, the findings point to further improvements, reforms or abolition of the program.
On top of this, there may also be a need to revisit the 4Ps program design.
Policy Alternative 1
Abolish the program and rechannel
the budget to a more efficient
social assistance project
Policy Alternative 2
Retain but reform the program
1. Intensify the efforts to improve the targeting, monitoring and updating systems of the program;
2. Improve the supply side;
3. Improve and add necessary topics in the Family Development Session that is more related to business and production (livelihood);
4. Include more 4Ps beneficiaries in the Sustainable Livelihood Program (SLP); and
5. Revisit the design of the 4Ps.
Policy Alternative 3
Retain the program but
devolve its administration to
Policy Alternative 4
Retain status quo i.e. retain as is
Retain but reform the program
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day.
Teach a man to have a vision or to dream where he wants to be and let him know how to get there, and you feed him for a lifetime.
The government should not abolish the program because that would make the beneficiaries more vulnerable.
Therefore, the 4Ps should be reformed and transformed into a program that focuses more on other levels of needs:
belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs).
The 4Ps should level up to ensure that the poor beneficiaries will be empowered even after a five-year membership in 4Ps.