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Microbial Communities

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Helen Gadegaard

on 28 November 2017

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Transcript of Microbial Communities

Define the terms symbiosis, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism (revision!)
Give a specific example of a symbiotic relationship between an animal and microorganism and connect this in a wider context with understanding the role of microorganisms in animal development
Understand what is meant by quorum sensing in bacteria. Give an example of quorum sensing and consider further implications of understanding this function of microbial life.
Appraise the role of molecular biology in assessing diversity and activity of microorganisms within a microbial community.

ILOs
V. fischeri - luciferase
Quorum sensing - switching the light on in V. fischeri
Biofilms
The moon, the Vibrio and the Bobtail Squid...
Microbial Communities
Bacteria Skilled at Social Networking
Genomics and metagenomics
"Omic" sciences
Characterising mixed microbial populations - answers from beyond the petri dish
Culture dependent identification
Microbiomes - an information explosion!
Hawaiin Bobtail Squid
Vibrio fischeri
Moonlight hunting
Selective colonisation by V. fischeri
a) Bacterial peptidoglycan signal causes ciliated epithelium cells to secrete mucus.
b)Gram-negative bacteria form dense aggregations.
c)V. fischeri out-compete other bacteria and become dominant.
d)V. fischeri are the only bacteria able to migrate through pores, into ducts to colonize host tissue
e) Following colonization, symbiotic bacterial cells become non-motile and induce host-epithelial cell swelling.
Only bioluminescent V. fischeri will sustain long-term colonization of the crypt epithelium.
Diel cycle
Quorum sensing and biofilms
In medicine...
In industry...
In space...
Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Kim et al., 2013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062437
"Space station urine recycling system still on the fritz"
Scientific American, Nov 2008
Culture INDEPENDENT identification of bacteria
Sea
Earth
Human
Grice, E.A., and Segre, J.A. 2012. The human microbiome: our second genome. Annual review of genomics and human genetics 13:151-170.
http://www.nature.com/nature/focus/humanmicrobiota/
Ottman N, Smidt H, de Vos WM and Belzer C (2012) The function of our microbiota: who is out there and what do they do? Front. Cell. Inf. Microbio. 2:104. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00104.
Transcriptomics
Proteomics
Metabolomics
Microarray Technology
Brock Figs 12.9 and 12.10
Perrin Ireland
Full transcript