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ORAL PATHOLOGY

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by

nada saeed

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of ORAL PATHOLOGY

Prevention
Histologic Features
Clinical Features
An increased amount of melanin at the basal layer.
A slight increase in the number of melanocytes per basal area.
Giant melanin granules within basal keratinocyte.
It is The first noticeable sign of neurofibromatosis, almost always the presence brown café au lait spots are present. These distinctive spots don't hurt or itch and never progress to anything more serious than spots. They can be found anywhere on the body, though not usually on the face. Tiny ones "freckles" may be seen under the arms or in the groin area. The size and number of café au lait macules increase with patient age in patients with NF1
20 mins
Tuesday, October 20, 2015
CALM
CAFE' AU LAIT MACULES

Cafe au lait spots can be removed with lasers.
Unfortunately results are variable as the spots are often not completely removed or can come back after treatment.

No need for surgery if there is no esthetic problems.
Treatment
ORAL PATHOLOGY
GENERAL OVERVIEW
synonyms
Spot
or
Pigmentation
Coat Of Maine
BIRTHMARK
: Benign irregularity on the skin which is present at birth. caused by overgrowth of blood vessels, melanocytes, smooth muscle, fat, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Dermatologists divide birthmarks into two types: Pigmented birthmarks, Vascular birthmarks.
BACKGROUND
Definition of skin pigmentation disorders.
Classification of pigmentation disorders.
Definition of hyperpigmentaion.
Classification of hyperpigmentation.
Is the CALM dangerous?
Etiology
Café au lait spots can arise from unrelated causes.
Usually caused by an increase in melanin content, often with the presence of giant melanosomes.
But recently it has been associated with NF1 that is result from an autosomal dominant disorder.

Learning outcomes:
After this simple lecture you will be able to:
Write the definition and synonyms of CALM.
Enumerate the causes of CALM.
Diagnose the CALM.
Describe The histological features of CALM.
Mention The treatment options of CALM.
Contents:
Introduction
Pathophysiology
Epidemiology
History
Clinical Features
Etiology
Diagnosis
Histology
Treatment
Prevention
Differential
Diagnosis
Congenital
Nevi
McCune-Albright
Syndrome
Postinflammatory
Hyperpigmentation
Tuberous Sclerosis
Imaging
PATHOPHYSIOLOGYl

frequency:
In the newborn period, solitary café au lait spots may occur in whites, Hispanics, and more in blacks. café au lait spots occur in 0.5% of Arab newborns.
Mortality:
No reports indicate that café au lait macules undergo malignant change.
Sex:
No sexual predilection is recognized.
Age:
Café au lait spots are present at birth, but they may be difficult to appreciate.

History
The diagnostic criteria for NF1 are met if 2 or more of the following are present:


Other syndromes associated with café au lait spots include the following:
McCune-Albright syndrome
Fanconi anemia
Basal cell nevus syndrome
References
dental.washington.com
medscape.com
wikipedia.com
youtube.com

Giraffe Spots
Epidemiology
A 9-year-old girl presents with multiple hyperpigmented lesions These distinctive pigments don't hurt or itch some of which have been present since birth The lesions have increased in size and number.
More than 20 brownish flat macules are noted on the child's chest, back, abdomen, oral mucosa and Tiny freckles seen under the arms. The macules are ovoid with sharp, well-defined borders. Twelve are larger than 1 cm in diameter.
Have a Case!
Diagnosis
present as well-circumscribed, evenly pigmented macules and patches that range in size from 1 to 2 mm to greater than 20 cm in greatest diameter. Café-au-lait are common in children. Although most café-au-lait present as 1 or 2 spots in an otherwise healthy child.

Early diagnosis and genetic testing/counseling are important because of the genetic transmission of the underlying systemic disorders, if one is present. Genetic testing is available for the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)–associated CALMs.
CALM , and it may associated with NF1 and McCune-Albright syndrome.
GOOD!
Neurofibromatosis type I known as von Recklinghausen disease , effect nerves and skin , genetic , caused by mutation of gene on chromosomes number 17 which responsible for control of cell division ,NF1 is the most common syndrome seen in children with multiple café au lait.

A significant increase in melanocyte density is noted in the café au lait macules of patients with NF1 compared with patients who have isolated café au lait macules without NF1 involvement.

The presence of numerous café au lait macules (CALMs) should raise the suspicion of a genetic disorder.).
Six or more café au lait spots larger than 5 mm in greatest diameter in prepubertal individuals, and larger than 15 mm in greatest diameter in postpubertal individuals.

Freckling in the axillary region.
Optic Glioma.
Two or more neurofibromas of any type or 1 plexiform neurofibroma.

Two or more Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas).
Full transcript