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Cancer

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Karlie Piechorowski

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Cancer

Cancer

Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
Skin irritation or dimpling
Breast or nipple pain
Nipple retraction (turning inward)
Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
A nipple discharge other than breast milk
General Breast Cancer Terms
Carcinoma

Definition of Cancer
The disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.
Most Common Types of Cancer in the United States
Bladder Cancer
Breast Cancer
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Endometrial Cancer
Kidney Cancer
LeukemiaLung Cancer
Melanoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Skin cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Normal Breast Tissue
Benign Breast Lumps
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too.
Breast Cancer
Fibrosis and Cysts
Fibroadenomas and Intraductal Papillomas
Resources
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/index
www.breastcancer.org
U.S Breast Cancer Statistics
Limit Your Risk for Breast Cancer
Treatments
Stages of Breast Cancer
Mastectomy
Lumpectomy
Lymph Node Dissection
Breast Cancer Awareness

How Can you Help?
Donate
Fundraisers
Volunteer
The female breast is made up mainly of lobules (milk-producing glands), ducts (tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple), and stroma (fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels).
Most lumps turn out to be caused by fibrosis and/or cysts, benign changes in the breast tissue that happen in many women at some time in their lives
Benign breast tumors such as fibroadenomas or intraductal papillomas are abnormal growths, but they are not cancerous and do not spread outside the breast to other organs. They are not life threatening.
Adenocarcinoma


Carcinoma In Situ
Invasive (infiltrating) Carcinoma
Sarcoma
About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
In 2014, an estimated 232,670 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with 62,570 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.
For women in the U.S., breast cancer death rates are higher than those for any other cancer, besides lung cancer.
White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women.
African-American women are more likely to die of breast cancer. Asian, Hispanic, and Native-American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.
About 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.
Engaging in regular exercise is good for you for many reasons, and one of them is to lower your risk of getting breast cancer. Many studies conducted over the past 20 years have shown consistently that an increase in physical activity is linked to a lower breast cancer risk.
Women should be aware of how their breast normally look and feel
Should start self examinations in their 20's
By doing the step-by-step self exam women should notice any changes in their breast
Can help detect early breast cancer.
Alison Graf, Karlie Piechorowski,
and Carly Ackerman

Find a Breast Cancer Run, Walk or Event
Types of Breast Cancer
Ductal Carcinoma

Begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple)
Most Common Type
Lobular Carcinoma

Begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast
Invasive Breast Cancer
Breast cancer that has spread from where it began in the breast ducts or lobules to surrounding normal tissue.
Ethnicity and Breast Cancer Statistics
Number of New Cases and Deaths per 100,000: The number of new cases of breast cancer was 124.6 per 100,000 women per year. The number of deaths was 22.2 per 100,000 women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2007-2011 cases and deaths.
Genetics and Breast Cancer
A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast.

A diagnostic mammogram is used to diagnose breast disease in women who have breast symptoms or an abnormal result on a screening mammogram. Screening mammograms are used to look for breast disease in women who are asymptomatic; that is, those who appear to have no breast problems. Standard screening mammograms take 2 views (x-ray pictures taken from different angles) of each breast, while diagnostic mammograms may take more views of the breast.
Breast Self- Exams
Questions?
Comments?
Thank you!
Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)
noninvasive, abnormal cells are found in the
lining of the breast duct, lobules of the breast,or only in the nipple
Stage I (IA & IB)
IA:
the tumor is 2 cm. or smaller, has not spread outside of the breast
IB:

small clusters of breast cancer cells are found in the lymph
nodes and either there is no tumor or a tumor < 2cm.
Stage II (IIA & IIB)
IIA:

no tumor is found, or it is a tumor < 2 cm. Cancer is found in 1-3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes in the breast bone.
IIB:

tumor is larger than 2 cm., no larger than 5 cm. and small clusters of breast cancer cells found in lymph nodes OR the lymph nodes near the breat bone, OR the tumor has not spread but is larger than 5 cm.
Stage III
IIIA:
(1)
no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer is found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during imaging tests or a physical exam)
(2)
the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells ( > 0.2 millimeter but < 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes.
(3)
the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to lymph nodes- axillary or near the breastbone

IIIB:
cancer may have spread to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer that may have spread to the breast wall. Addtionally, cancer has spread to 10+ lymph nodes.
Stage IV
- The cancer has spread to other organs of the body. Most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/breast/Patient/page2#Keypoint12
Stages ^
There are many determinants of cancer including genetic predisposition, environmental influences, infectious agents, nutritional factors, hormonal and reproductive factors, radiation, etc.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16295727
Prevention:
-Raise awareness
-Promote a healthy diet
-Control over alcohol intake
-Physical activity
Early Detection:
Depends on the ability to continue improving outcomes and survival.
http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index3.html
A surgery where only the breast tumor, or "lump", and some surrounding tissue is removed. This surgery takes about 15-40 minutes.
Risks involved-
loss of sensation
uneven breasts
http://www.breastcancer.org/treatment/surgery/lumpectomy/expectations
An incision is made and the surgeon most commonly will remove the lower 2 out of the 3 levels of axillary nodes.
Risks involved-
loss of sensation in the armpit/arms
numbness
inflammation of the arm veins
increases risk for infection
Types:
-
Total (simple)
removes the whole breast, no lymph nodes removed (shown below)
-
Modified Radical
removes entire breast, lining of chest muscles, some lymph nodes in armpit (shown --->)
http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Mastectomy.html
Stages of Breast Cancer
Mammogram
Managerial Issues
Managers and Supervisors should promote healthy life habits as well as annual doctor appointments to their employees
IIC:
Types of Surgeries
Types of Treatment

-Surgery
-Chemotherapy
- Radiation
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