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Transcript of Feminism 101
Feminism is ____________.
Are you a Feminist? Feminism 101 Waves of US Feminism Wave As Metaphor --when did it happen?
--what are the issues in each wave?
--what does this wave assume
--how does change happen? The ending of the first wave is contested and can span anywhere from the 1920’s to the 1950’s. 1950’s 1780 U.S. 1st Wave Image: http://feminspire.com/votes-for-women-feminspire-interviews-the-pankhursts/ Image: http://socialistcurrents.wordpress.com/tag/slavery/ Abolition of Slavery
Marriage Rights Access to Education & Employment
Suffrage (Right to Vote) U.S. 1st Wave "Mary Wollstonecraft" (1797)
portrait by John Opie “Strengthen the female
mind by enlarging it,
and there will be an
end to blind obedience.” 1780: Mary Wollstonecraft’s
“Vindication of the Rights
of Women.” U.S. 1st Wave Image: http://www.sojournertruthmemorial.org/ U.S. 1st Wave: Sojourner Truth http://www.biography.com/people/ida-b-wells-9527635 http://www.rpmministries.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Maria-Stewart.gif Lucretia Mott in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C. Maria Stewart
1803-1879 U.S. 1st Wave- Abolitionists http://www.oberlin.edu/external/EOG/OYTT-images/LucyStone.html http://www.bardostamps.com/cart/catalog/a-general/modern/catalog-1250.htm Lucy Stone was a prominent American
abolitionist and suffragist, and a vocal advocate
and organizer promoting rights for women.
In 1847, Stone was the first woman from
Massachusetts to earn a college degree. Lucy Stone
1818 –1893 U.S. 1st Wave "The Apotheosis of Suffrage" In 1851, Stanton started working with Susan B. Anthony, a well-known abolitionist. The two women made a great team. Anthony managed the business affairs of the women's rights movement while Stanton did most of the writing. Together they edited and published a woman's newspaper, the Revolution, from 1868 to 1870. In 1869, Anthony and Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. Susan B. Anthony and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton U.S. 1st Wave Images:http://historyventures.blogspot.com/2012/03/south-carolina-bamfs-sarah-and-angelina.html Despite the disapproval they faced from fellow Quakers and from a
society that did not accept women as public speakers on such
controversial topics as slavery, the Grimke sisters found themselves
in the antislavery movement.
This outcry over women
abolitionists prompted Sarah
to write Letters on the
Equality of the Sexes. By
the late 1830s the Grimke
sisters were known not only
as abolitionists but also as proponents of women’s rights. Sarah and Angelina Grimke U.S. 1st Wave 1950’s Liberal Feminism 1780 First Wave Today 1780 Liberal Feminism harlemgal-inc.com madamenoire.com www.redefiningthefaceofbeauty.com Liberal Feminism www.glamour.com How does change happen?
--create access and opportunity
--Legislation and the US Courts
By working within current
systems Liberal Feminism = Liberal Feminism http://ryanaweaver.com/waves-and-wisdom/waves-2/ Lucretia Mott
1793-1880 Ida B. Wells
1862-1931 Did you know that until 1974, married women could not establish credit in their own names or without their husbands’ permission? Second Wave Feminism www.newyorker.com Accomplishments?
Marriage, Education, Employment
and Reproductive Rights Laws Issues?
Access to employment
Reproductive & health rights 2nd Wave Liberal Feminism www.cnr.edu Assumptions about women:
1. Western thought and western culture is male dominated; male-centered (androcentrism)
2. Women are aligned with all the “devalued” pairs in western
3. Women are oppressed by patriarchy; men benefit from patriarchy. 2nd Wave: Radical Feminism The power of the fathers: a familial-social, ideological, political system in which men—by force, direct pressure, or through ritual, traditional, law, and language, customs, etiquette, education, and the division of labor, determine what part women shall or shall not play, and in which the female is everywhere subsumed under the male.
Adrienne Rich, Of Woman Born, 1986 Definition of Patriarchy Issues:
Violence against Women /
Women loving Women/
Heterosexism 2nd Wave:
Feminism www.poetryfoundation.org www.thefader.com www.boloji.com escapethehive.blogspot.com Radical Feminists Antipornography Activists
Against Our Will (1975)
& Lesbian Experience
Adrienne Rich Patriarchy Radical Feminism Patriarchy Eliminate patriarchy
Reject idea that androcentrism & male dominance (patriarchy) are “natural.”
Educate men (and women) on their role in patriarchy Radical Feminism aboutaiden.blogspot.com www.forbes.com annabella.womenforaction.org Cultural Feminism = Cultural Feminism Cultural Feminism: Issues Cultural Feminism: Issues (Aka, good things to do anyway!) When women value & honor women.
When we stand up for issues that are exclusive to women.
When we learn women’s history.
When we support women’s art, literature, film. Cultural Feminism Women’s Liberation Movement of 60’s & 70s How does change happen? How does change happen? (Symbol for Trans* Inclusive Feminism) msmagazine.com thinktankbradenton.wordpress.com US 3rd Wave Feminism Term coined by Rebecca Walker, 1992
Embraces all self-identified women:
across occupations, identities, race and
ethnicities, across the globe
Inherited privileges from their mothers’
and grandmothers’ work By Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott
and Barbara Smith Feminists Of Color Foremothers of 2nd
Wave: Audre Lorde,
Gloria Anzaldua US 3rd Wave US 3rd Wave Feminists Of Color 1. Women come from diverse environments and, thus, have different experiences.
2. All oppressions are not the same.
3. Race, class, gender are not additive oppressions. (Intersectionality & hierarchy) Feminists Of Color Feminists Of Color Important Terms Coined by FOC
Frances Beal – “double jeopardy”
Audre Lorde – “master’s tools”
Alice Walker – “womanism” Terms 1. The structure of society constructs
individuals’ lives, opportunities, etc.
2. Societies are predominantly structured
economically – by class.
3. Under Capitalism: those who own (bourgeoisie/ capitalist) and those who work (proletariat).
4. In class societies, a division of labor and exploitation of workers is inevitable. Marxist/Socialist Feminism Marxist/Socialist Feminism Class Ideology of motherhood
Feminine “fragility” Marxist/Socialist Feminism The division of labor leads to a gendered division of labor.
The capitalist drive for profits
keeps wages low and pits workers against each other: thus women's
second-class worker status.
Women’s relegation to the
private sphere creates unpaid
domestic labor. Marxist/Socialist Feminism Eliminate class distinctions and oppression (socialism).
Eliminate women’s oppression within paid labor; redefine paid labor
Eliminate women’s relegation to the private sphere Marxist/Socialist Feminism Assumptions about Women http://octagon-surgeon.tumblr.com/post/2996445570/based-on-audre-lordes-quote-the-masters-tools Rooted in Marxist ideology Critiques of Marxist/Socialist from Black
Feminists morgansea.tumblr.com Better assumptions about women: CWLU's "Social Feminism: A Strategy for the Women's Movement," 1972 Assumptions about women:
1. “Reproductive” Labor
2. Emergency Labor
3. At home, women are consumers;
too “fragile” for real work Marxist/Socialist
Feminism What comes next?... 1. Men are the “norm,” or best possible
2. Equality Laws usually hurt as well
3. Struggles for equality revolve around a generalized and neutralized social justice.
4. Keeps struggle in public realm; private inequalities are untouched.
5. Even if women and men behave in the same ways, the social meanings of their activities remain untouched. Critique of Equality Feminisms Feminism as Equalism? What does your definition of feminism look like now? Would you say you are a feminist? Would your friends say they are feminists? If not...
Would that mean they support INEQUALITY? If the future of feminism is Equalism… There are many kinds of feminisms.
All offer different assumptions
about women; all offer different
strategies for change.
Equality feminism is not the whole
story; much is problematic about
“Radical feminism” isn’t very radical, is it? Summary/Conclusion Perhaps the future of feminism
is to consider it as equalism. Defintion of eqaulism:
equal opportunity, consideration, and
action regardless of race, class, gender,
ethnicity, ability, sexuality, or age