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Lecture 14. Race and Ethnicity

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by

Ron Jacobs

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Lecture 14. Race and Ethnicity

1. How are Racial and Ethnic Categories Shaped by society?
2. What is the racial and ethnic composition of the US population?
3. How are race and ethnicity connected to power and inequality?
definitions
is a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
refers to a group of people who
have a shared cultural heritage and a common identity
Race
Ethnicity
Race is an idea we ascribe to biology
Racial categories vary by time and place
Irish immigrants to the US in the 1800s were considered nonwhite
Brazilian census uses five racial categories, based on color rather than descent
France collects no census data on race, and French law prohibits the collection of data on racial characteristics
In the US, individuals were allowed to report more than one race beginning with the 2000 census
for any set of racial classifications, there is more
genetic variation within groups than there is between groups
common language
common religion
common history
socially constructed
from the perspective of stratification, race and ethnicity is important because of the way it usually combines to create minority groups
what all minority groups share is
distinct identity, based on race, ethnicity, or both
experience of subordination, through economic inequality
experience of subordination, through the symbolic violence of social prejudice and cultural stereotypes
stereotypes as a process of scapegoating;
blaming others for your own disadvantage

stereotypes create conflict and division among disadvantaged groups, and prevent stronger alliances from forming
stereotypes as broadly-shared cultural knowledge
a minority group is not defined numerically
minority groups are defined by social position and cultural understandings
"model minority" stereotype
ignores history of mistreatment of Chinese Immigrants (1860s) and Japanese immigrants (1940s)
Economic stratification
with the exception of Asian-Americans, all other minority groups experience more poverty and lower median family income than the US average
spatial segregation
minority groups are more likely to live in highly-segregated neigborhoods
NYC
LA
red = White/Caucasian, blue = African American, green = Asian, orange = Hispanic, and gray = Other
Cultural Stratification
forces of assimilation privilege the cultural traditions of the dominant group, and encourage minority groups to abandon their ethnic identity in favor of the dominant culture
violence and institutionalized surveillance
of minority groups

genocide
institutional bias in law enforcement practices
physical intimidation of minority groups
Ku Klux Klan rally, Gainesville, Florida, 1920
Chicago Race Riot, 1919
Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2010, 2013).

Diversity Today

100%

0.3

0.9

2.2

4.5

26.3

65.6

16.9%

Total

Asian alone

Indian, Alaska Native

Black alone

Two or more

Other race alone

White alone

Hispanic or Latino

100%

2.9

4.6

0.2

0.8

5.0

12.6

73.9%

11.1

62.8

Total

Two or more

Other

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian

Black or African-American

White, Hispanic

White, non-Hispanic

White (any ethnicity)

Ethnicity

% of U.S. Population

Race

TABLE 10.1

MAJOR RACIAL GROUPS AND HISPANICS BY RACE IN THE UNITED STATES, 2012

Source: Calculated from data from U.S. Census Bureau (2013).
Full transcript