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health

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jeneva leal

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of health

Substance Abuse By: Jeneva Leal
Clay aflleje
Aveah RIvera
Jeralyn SanNicolas Chapter 21 : Tobacco Lesson 1 : The Effect of Tobacco Use Lesson 2 : Harmful Effects of Alcohol Use Lesson 3 : Promoting A Smoke Free Environment Lesson 1 : Choosing To Be Alcohol Free Chapter 22 : Alcohol Vocabulary:
* Addictive drug : a substance that causes physiological or psychological dependence.
* Nicotine : The addictive drug found in tobacco leaves.
* Stimulant : A drug that increases the action of the central nervous system, the heart, and other organs.
* Carcinogen : A cancer -causing substance.
* Smokeless tobacco : Tobacco that is sniffed through the nose, held in the mouth, or chewed.
* Leukopalakia : Thickened, white, leathery-looking spots on the inside of the mouth that can develop into oral cancer.
* Nicotine withdrawal : The process that occurs in the body when nicotine an addictive drug, is no longer used.
* Nicotine substitute : A product that delivers small amounts of nicotine into the users system while he or she is trying to give up the tobacco habit.
* Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) : Secondhand smoke.
* Mainstream smoke : The smoke exhaled from the lungs of a smoker.
* Side stream smoke : The smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. * Tobacco products which are made from the leaves of tobacco plants, contain nicotine. Experts say that nicotine is more addictive than heroin or cocaine.
* Imported cigarettes contain two to three times the amount of tar and nicotine found in American cigarettes.
* Smokers of low-nicotine, low-tar cigarettes smoke more and inhale more deeply to maintain body's accustomed nicotine level.
* It's illegal for stores to sell tobacco products to minors. * 20 minutes after a person quits smoking, their blood pressure and pulse rates drop - body temperature- in limbs returns to normal.
* In 24 hrs. the chance of heart attack begins to decrease.
* In 1 year the risk of coronary heart disease is cut in half. 1st Period
Mr. Hernandez
Health Lesson 2 : Choosing to Live Tobacco Free * Parents protect the health of their children by staying tobacco free.
* Statewide anti smoking campaigns are effective in reducing smoking.
* Children of smokers are nearly twice as likely to be in poor health as those of nonsmokers.
* Children of smokers are 3 times as likely to smoke as children of nonsmokers. Vocabulary :
* Ethanol : The type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
* Fermentation : Is the chemical action of yeast on sugars.
* Depressant : A drug that slows the central nervous system.
* Intoxication : Is the state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person's physical and mental control is significantly reduced.
* Alcohol abuse : The excessive use of alcohol.
* Metabolism : The process by which the body breaks down substances.
* Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) : The amount of alcohol in a person's blood, expressed as a percentage.
* Binge drinking : Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting.
* Alcohol poisoning : A severe and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose.
* Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) : A group of alcohol- related birth defects that include physical and mental problems.
* Alcoholism : A disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol.
* Detoxification : A process in which the body adjusts to functioning without alcohol.
* Sobriety : Living without alcohol. Alcohol use is a serious matter. It is a key factor in :
> 33 percent of suicides.
> 50 percent of homicides.
> 62 percent of assaults.
> 68 percent of manslaughter cases.
> 50 percent of head injuries.
> 41 percent of traffic fatalities.
> Alcohol also plays a major role in domestic abuse and injury, child abuse and neglect, and workplace injuries.
> More than half of all people who drown have consumed alcohol before entering the water. Lesson 3 : Alcohol, the Individual, and Society Females become intoxicated faster and stay that way longer than do males of comparable size. Why?
>Females have a high percentage of body fat and less water i their bodies that males. As a result, alcohol in females is less diluted and has a stronger and more lasting effect.
>The enzyme that controls alcohol processing is 70% more effective in males than in females.

>Physical and mental impairment begin with the first drink of alcohol and increases as more alcohol is consumed

>Alcohol-related vehicle fatalities are a leading cause of death for teens. Family members of alcoholics also experience the negative effects of alcoholism

An alcoholic might display symptoms like:
> Craving - compulsion, or strong need to drink
> Loss of control - can't limit his or her drinking and is preoccupied with alcohol
> Physical dependence - may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety
> Tolerance - need to drink more alcohol to feel its effects
> Health, family, and legal problems - suffers repeated injuries, receives multiple drunk driving citations, frequent arguments, and poor relationships with family members

> About 40% of violent crimes, totaling about 3 million annually, are alcohol-related.

>Nearly half of all homicide victims have alcohol in their bloodstreams Chapter 23 : Medicines and Drugs Vocabulary
* medicines : drugs used to treat or prevent disease or other conditions
* drugs : substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body or mind
* analgesics/medicines : pain relievers
* side effects : reactions to medicine other than one that is intended
* addictive interaction : when medicines work together in a positive way
* synergistic effect : an interaction of two or more medicines that results in a greater effect than when the medicines are taken alone - one medicine increases the strength of the other
* antagonistic interaction : when the effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine
* illicit drug use : use or sale of any substance that is illegal or otherwise not permitted
* psychological dependence : a condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally
* physiological dependence : condition in which the user has a chemical need for the drug
* paranoia : an irrational suspiciousness or distrust of others
* inhalants : substances whose fumes are sniffed and inhaled to achieve a mind-altering effect
* anabolic-androgenic steroids : synthetic substances that are similar to the male sex hormone testosterone
* psychoactive drugs : chemicals that affect the central nervous system and alter activity in the brain, change the functioning of the CNS.
* stimulants : drugs that speed up the central nervous system
* euphoria : a feeling of intense well-being or or elation
* depressants : sedatives, are drugs that tend to slow down the central nervous system
* narcotics : specific drugs derived from the opium plant that are obtainable only by prescription and are used to relieve pain
* hallucinogens : drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense perceptions including vision, hearing, smell, and touch.
* designer drugs : synthetic substances meant to irritate the effects of hallucinogens and other dangerous drugs
* drug watches : organized community efforts by neighborhood residents to patrol, monitor, report, and otherwise try to stop drug deals and drug abuse Lesson 1 : The Role of Medicines * Medicines are taken to fight illness, promote health, prevent diseases, and reduce pain
* Medicines can be categorized into 4 broad categories : Medicines that
> help prevent disease
> fight pathogens, or infectious agents that cause disease
> relieve pain
> help maintain or restore health and regulate the body's systems
* The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tests and approves all new medicines before being made available for sale
* Some examples of medicines that promote health and prevent diseases are allergy medicines, body regulating medicines, antidepressant and antipsychotic medicines, cancer treatment medicine, vaccines, and antitoxins
* Some examples of how medicines can be misused
>when someone gives a prescription medicine to a person for whom it was not prescribed or taking another person's medicine
> taking too much or too little of a medicine or taking a medicine for a longer or shorter period than prescribed Lesson 2 : Drug Use-A High-Risk Behavior *Substance abuse harms concentration and coordination. You cannot do your best if your body and mind are not functioning properly.
* Some factors that may influence decisions about drugs
> peer pressure
> family members
> role models
> Media Message
> Perceptions
* A strong, supportive system of family and friends can help a teen make a healthful decision to avoid drugs
* Drug Abuse affects all sides of the health triangle
> Physical Health - Once a drug enters the bloodstream, it can harm a person's brain, heart, lungs, and other Vital Organs
> Mental Health - Drugs may cloud reasoning, thinking, and judgement. People who experiment often lose sight of values and what's important in life.
> Social Health - Substance abuse can have a negative effect on relationships with friends and family members. It can cause teens to be expelled from school, dropped from a school team, and often has legal consequences. Lesson 3 : Marijuana, Inhalants, and Steroids * Marijuana is an illegal drug. It affects your memory, concentration, coordination, and reaction time.
*Marijuana contains 421 different chemicals, including a d-alpha-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. THC is stored in body fat, and traces of it can be present in the blood for as long as a month. It has a lasting effect on the brain. This means that a marijuana user can fail a drug test weeks after using the drug.
* Some health risks of Marijuana include
> hallucinations and paranoia
> bloodshot eyes
> dry mouth
> lung irritation
> heart and lung damage
> increased risk of lung cancer
> increased appetite, leading to weight gain
> changed hormone levels, affecting normal body development in teens
> in females, increased testosterone levels and risk of infertility
* Most inhalants go straight to the brain, causing damage and actually killing brain cells that will never be replaced.
* Inhalants include solvents and aerosols such as glues, spray paints, gasoline, and varnishes Lesson 4 : Psychoactive Drugs * There are 4 main groups of psychoactive drugs
> Stimulants
(Cocaine, Crack, Amphetamines, Methamphetamine)
> Depressants
(Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Rohypnol, GHB)
> Narcotics
(Heroin)
> Hallucinogens
(PCP, LSD, Ketamine,)
* Health Risks of Psychoactive Drugs
> Stimulant - Cocaine - (abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain, death, malnutrition)
> Depressant - Tranquilizers - ( depression, unusual excitement, fever, irritability, dizziness)
> Narcotics - Heroin - ( confusion, sedation, unconsciousness, coma)
> Hallucinogens - Ketamine - ( death, memory loss, numbness, impaired motor function, high blood pressure)
* Psychoactive Drugs have a big impact on the central nervous system which includes the brain, and the spinal cord. These parts of the body control how the body moves and the activities. Lesson 5 : Living Drug Free If you're offered a drug :

> Be firm in saying that you're not interested
> Keep it simple. Say, "No thanks," or "I don't need drugs."

Protect yourself against risks :

> Choose friends who share your commitment to staying drug free
> Maintain your self-respect and be confident about your abilities
> Take pride in your accomplishments * Efforts to keep everyone drug free involve drug-free school zones, and drug watches in the community.
* Spending time with a parent or trusted adult can reinforce a a teen's decision to live drug free.
* Drug counseling and treatment can help a drug user break the cycle of addiction. Warning Signs of Drug Use

> Gets drunk or high regularly, is often hung over
> Lies about the drugs he or she is using, or constantly talks about drugs
> Stops participating in activities that once were an important part of his or her life
> Has difficulty concentrating
> Takes unnecessary risks or participates in unsafe behaviors
> Has "blackouts" and forgets what he or she did while under the influence Despite the many problems associated with alcohol use, many teenagers still choose to drink. why? Several reasons influence teens in their choice to use -or not use- alcohol:
> Peer Pressure : It's normal for teens to want to feel accepted within a group. Teens who avoid alcohol use are more likely to be alcohol free than teens whose friends accept alcohol use.
> Family : Family members can help teens be alcohol free. Parents who discourage and avoid the use of alcohol are more likely to have teens who do the same.
> Media Messages : Many media messages on TV and radio and in movies make alcohol use appear exciting, attractive, and fun. Many of these messages might attract teens at such a young age to be influenced in drinking at parties, hotels, etc. About Ice and Spice * "Ice" is a street name for crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride * Ice is usually snorted, swallowed or inserted anally. It is also smoked or injected, producing a rapid onset of the drug's effects The physical effects of ice may include:

* Dilated pupils
* Blurred vision
* Dry mouth
* Increased breathing rate
* Severe headache Ice can also affect a person's behavior, including:

* Increase in physical activity
* Restlessness and anxiety
* Aggression, hostility and violence
* Elevated mood and feelings of euphoria and well being
* Talkativeness and repeating simple acts or tasks Longer term use of ice may result in:

* Severe depression
* Paranoia
* Convulsions
* Hallucinations
* Heart-related complications (heart attack and heart failure have been associated with chronic use) * "Spice" refers to a wide variety of herbal mixtures that produce experiences similar to marijuana (cannabis) and that are marketed as "safe," legal alternatives to that drug. * Spice abusers who have been taken to Poison Control Centers report symptoms that include rapid heart rate, vomiting, agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. * Spice has been tested at least 5 (or greater) times more potent than some of the strongest marijuana. * Short term effects, these drugs have been known to cause elevated blood pressure, pale skin, vomiting Long term side effects are not known yet from this drug since it is new to the market, but it has been banned in many states Thanks for Watching! Thanks for Watching!
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