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Transcript of Proposal Presentation
What is the sustainability of decentralized RWH system versus centralized water supply at the building scale?
What are the important parameters influencing the sustainability?
How does the sustainability of decentralized RWH system differ from building to watershed scale?
Factors affecting sustainability at building and watershed scale. A Collaborative research on
Analysis of Decentralized Rainwater Harvesting System Using the Urban Water Infrastructure Sustainability Evaluation (uWISE) Framework.
University of Toledo
University of Utah Introduction
Centralized Water Infrastructure challenges
30% leakage of potable water (Ewing, R.H,1994)
20% of regional energy demand (California Energy Commission, 2005). Decentralized rainwater harvesting emerged as an alternative to centralized water and sanitation system. The main objective of this study is to apply uWISE framework to analyze the decentralized water infrastructure when Rainwater is used for toilet flushing and compare it to Centralized Urban water infrastructure alternative. Why uWISE?
To conduct life cycle assessment in both building and watershed scale.
To determine the system design parameters necessary for creating sustainable outcomes. Rainwater Harvesting System is typically designed to convey runoff from the catchment area (roof) to the storage system or used directly.
More notably, the rain water from RWH system is used for toilet flushing and laundry provided with a backup from municipal water supply (Anand,C and Apul, D.S., 2010). Additional benefits of RWHS
Not only reduce potable water supply demand but also reduce the storm water runoff.
Reduced downstream drainage infrastructure needs. What has been done till date and what has not?
Efficiency of RWHS for toilet flushing and storm water management at building scale and watershed scale.
Integrated benefits of RWHS across building and watershed scales.
Improved approach to analyze relationship between RWHS and sustainability metrics.
Safety and or health issues while using RWHS.
Several Decentralized Sanitation Systems
Satellite treatment plants, dry sanitation systems, urine and stool separating toilets, grey or black water recycling toilets and RWH flushing toilets.
Which one is more efficient and how?
Less construction and low cost.
More sustainable. Prior LCA studies
Few LCA studies on use of RWHS for sanitation purposes.
Out of the different Decentralized sanitation alternatives, rainwater flushed high efficiency toilets are proved to be highly efficient (Anand,C and Apul, D.S., 2010). Deficiencies in Prior LCA studies
Generalizing results between different situations (Roman et.al, 2008)
Limited practical application towards achieving sustainability goals. Proposed Work
Perform sustainability analysis in building scale and watershed scale.
Extend building scale and watershed scale sustainability analyses to other regions of US.
Five Tasks- Model Description
Daily and monthly average precipitation data
End uses Calculation of sustainability Metrics using uWISE framework
Green house gases emission calculations
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Acidification Potential (AP)
Eutrophication Potential (EP)
Freshwater Ecosystem Impact (FEI)
Storm Water Impact Index (SWI) LCA and LCC calculations
Material manufacturing phase
LCA model will be developed in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. RWH System design
Cistern support structure
Piping length Scenario Analysis
Data from Task-1.
Probability density functions will be assigned.
Variability in the data will be propagated using Monte Carlo Simulations.
Sustainability Metrics- Output Sensitivity Analysis
Output will be compared with real life to observe the variability.
Rank correlation coefficients and Tornado graphs will be used. Desired Value Analysis
uWISE will be coupled with Monte Carlo Simulations to find Sustainability Metrics. Why extend to watershed model?
To extend the impact of this research to the city planning and engineering level.
Limitations of extending
RWHS infrastructure can be linearly extrapolated
Energy usage, runoff estimated at the building scale cannot be linearly extrapolated to the watershed scale. uWISE Framework
Limitations of linear extrapolations will be overcomed.
SWMM model will be used to simulate infiltration, evapotranspiration and Storm Water runoff.
What is SWMM?
Simulates hydrologic process and hydrologic transport in Urban environment. Task:3- Goals
Use uWISE to analyze the relative sustainability of Decentralized RWH System where Rainwater is used for toilet flushing versus Centralized Sanitation Systems for the Urbanized portion of Ottawa River in Toledo, OH.
Output of Task:3
Urban runoff used in calculating SWI and other Sustainability Index. Methodology
Desired Value Analysis is approximately same in building scale and watershed scale.
The Watershed scale data obtained from Task-4 will be subjected to sensitivity analysis and desired value analysis. Extension to Regional Scale
Analyze the sensitivity of Sustainable Metrics in building scale as well as watershed scale and determine the influence of climate on sustainability of Harvested Rainwater for toilet flushing purpose.
Extend the sustainability Metrics to Regional scale of the US. Projected Outcomes and Recommendations
Diffusion of Decentralization Schedule