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Proposal Presentation

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Jay Devkota

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Proposal Presentation

Task:1- Enhance an existing building scale LCA model. Task:2- Conduct building scale scenario, sensitivity and desired value analysis using LCA model. Task:3- Extend LCA model to watershed scale and couple with urban watershed model. Task:4- Conduct watershed-scale scenario, sensitivity and desired value analysis using coupled LCA-SWMM model. Task:5 Extend building and watershed scale analyses to other climatic regions of the US. Objective

What is the sustainability of decentralized RWH system versus centralized water supply at the building scale?

What are the important parameters influencing the sustainability?

How does the sustainability of decentralized RWH system differ from building to watershed scale?

Factors affecting sustainability at building and watershed scale. A Collaborative research on
Analysis of Decentralized Rainwater Harvesting System Using the Urban Water Infrastructure Sustainability Evaluation (uWISE) Framework.

Collaborating Institutions
University of Toledo
University of Utah Introduction

Centralized Water Infrastructure challenges

30% leakage of potable water (Ewing, R.H,1994)

20% of regional energy demand (California Energy Commission, 2005). Decentralized rainwater harvesting emerged as an alternative to centralized water and sanitation system. The main objective of this study is to apply uWISE framework to analyze the decentralized water infrastructure when Rainwater is used for toilet flushing and compare it to Centralized Urban water infrastructure alternative. Why uWISE?

To conduct life cycle assessment in both building and watershed scale.

To determine the system design parameters necessary for creating sustainable outcomes. Rainwater Harvesting System is typically designed to convey runoff from the catchment area (roof) to the storage system or used directly.

More notably, the rain water from RWH system is used for toilet flushing and laundry provided with a backup from municipal water supply (Anand,C and Apul, D.S., 2010). Additional benefits of RWHS

Not only reduce potable water supply demand but also reduce the storm water runoff.

Reduced downstream drainage infrastructure needs. What has been done till date and what has not?

Efficiency of RWHS for toilet flushing and storm water management at building scale and watershed scale.

Not Done:
Integrated benefits of RWHS across building and watershed scales.

Improved approach to analyze relationship between RWHS and sustainability metrics.

Safety and or health issues while using RWHS.
Several Decentralized Sanitation Systems

Satellite treatment plants, dry sanitation systems, urine and stool separating toilets, grey or black water recycling toilets and RWH flushing toilets.

Which one is more efficient and how?

Less construction and low cost.
More sustainable. Prior LCA studies

Few LCA studies on use of RWHS for sanitation purposes.

Out of the different Decentralized sanitation alternatives, rainwater flushed high efficiency toilets are proved to be highly efficient (Anand,C and Apul, D.S., 2010). Deficiencies in Prior LCA studies

Generalizing results between different situations (Roman et.al, 2008)

Limited practical application towards achieving sustainability goals. Proposed Work

Perform sustainability analysis in building scale and watershed scale.

Extend building scale and watershed scale sustainability analyses to other regions of US.

Five Tasks- Model Description

Building dimensions

Building type

Daily and monthly average precipitation data


End uses Calculation of sustainability Metrics using uWISE framework


Payback period

Green house gases emission calculations

Energy payback

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Acidification Potential (AP)

Eutrophication Potential (EP)


Freshwater Ecosystem Impact (FEI)

Storm Water Impact Index (SWI) LCA and LCC calculations

Material manufacturing phase

Construction phase

Operation phase

LCA model will be developed in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. RWH System design

Cistern size

Cistern support structure

Pump capacity

Piping length Scenario Analysis

Data from Task-1.

Probability density functions will be assigned.

Variability in the data will be propagated using Monte Carlo Simulations.

Sustainability Metrics- Output Sensitivity Analysis

Output will be compared with real life to observe the variability.

Rank correlation coefficients and Tornado graphs will be used. Desired Value Analysis

uWISE will be coupled with Monte Carlo Simulations to find Sustainability Metrics. Why extend to watershed model?

To extend the impact of this research to the city planning and engineering level.

Limitations of extending

RWHS infrastructure can be linearly extrapolated

Energy usage, runoff estimated at the building scale cannot be linearly extrapolated to the watershed scale. uWISE Framework

Limitations of linear extrapolations will be overcomed.

SWMM model will be used to simulate infiltration, evapotranspiration and Storm Water runoff.

What is SWMM?

Simulates hydrologic process and hydrologic transport in Urban environment. Task:3- Goals

Use uWISE to analyze the relative sustainability of Decentralized RWH System where Rainwater is used for toilet flushing versus Centralized Sanitation Systems for the Urbanized portion of Ottawa River in Toledo, OH.

Output of Task:3

LCA results.

Urban runoff used in calculating SWI and other Sustainability Index. Methodology

Desired Value Analysis is approximately same in building scale and watershed scale.

The Watershed scale data obtained from Task-4 will be subjected to sensitivity analysis and desired value analysis. Extension to Regional Scale

Analyze the sensitivity of Sustainable Metrics in building scale as well as watershed scale and determine the influence of climate on sustainability of Harvested Rainwater for toilet flushing purpose.

Extend the sustainability Metrics to Regional scale of the US. Projected Outcomes and Recommendations

Building construction


Diffusion of Decentralization Schedule
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