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ED3629 Catering for Special Needs
Transcript of ED3629 Catering for Special Needs
How common are reading difficulties?
Problems with fluency in reading - slow and staggered reading
Problems identifying letter to sound relationships
Continually sounds out the same word when it appears in reading
Often guesses at unknown words rather than employing other strategies e.g. sounding out
Has trouble understanding the meaning of texts
Avoids reading and writing tasks
What can we do to help?
Remediation for Reading Difficulties
What can we do?
Strategies chosen to assist students experiencing reading difficulties should be based on the type of difficulty the child is experiencing, i.e.:
Reading is the main method by which new information is acquired.
People with good literacy skills are more able to participate in society and achieve success in life beyond school.
An inability to read will place students at risk in all areas of the curriculum, inhibiting achievement in school and life beyond school.
Early intervention for students experiencing reading difficulties is as such essential.
Why is reading important?
Affects approximately 30% of children within a school.
Is the main reason for referrals to school psychologists.
Is not limited to students who have other identified disabilities or special needs, but can also affect gifted and talented students.
Oral Reading Assessment e.g. Running Records
Waddington Diagnostic Reading Assessment
Referral to school Psychologist
In the classroom we can use:
Text to Speech
Read Please Software
Interactive Whiteboard Activities
Teachers can also encourage parents to use these resources in the home environment
How can we incorporate ICT to assist struggling readers?
As such reading difficulties may be related to problems in:
Decoding written language - being able to read the words within a text.
Comprehending written language - being able to make meaning from a text.
Types of reading difficulties
The simple view of reading suggests that the reading process is based upon the complementary processes of decoding, and comprehending the language of a written text.
This is a severe difficulty in learning to read and spell despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and appropriate opportunity.
Success For All
These intervention programmes are generally adopted as a whole school approach.
Daily reading instruction - 30 minutes
Incorporate writing in order to strengthen concepts about print and spelling
i.e. phonic knowledge, word analysis and blending
Work with parents to provide additional support for the student.
i.e. providing appropriate books for students to practice reading at home.
Adapt the regular class program to allow both weaker and stronger readers to achieve success
General Principles for Reading Intervention
Independent Reading Level: Text that is easy and can be read without assistance
Instructional Reading Level: Text that can be read with some assistance from the teacher or more expert peer
Frustration Reading Level: Text that cannot be read or comprehended by the reader, even with assistance.
A variety of text types should be provided which engages the student through realistic and interest based content.
Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic and Tactile (VAKT)
The Fernald VAK Approach includes:
1. Learner chooses a word they wish to learn
2. Teacher writes this word on an index card
3. Learner finger traces the word, whilst saying each syllable
this is repeated until the learner feels confident of writing the word from memory
4. When new words have been mastered index cards are then filed for revision
"What I know about, I can talk about.
What I say can be written down by someone.
I can read what has been written."
Language Experience Approach
Reading, vocabulary and comprehension are developed through the recognition of unfamiliar words using context.
Designed to increase fluency, accuracy, expression and confidence in reading.
"Dictated story" approach - Uses the child's own thoughts and language to produce personalised reading material.
The child's 'stories' are scribed, or written by the student with assistance.
Students practice reading their own material to develop confidence and fluency.
The teacher controls the vocabulary added to the child's repertoire.
This activity can later be developed into sentence building activities with word cards from stories from previous lessons.
Additional activities can be introduced to further enhance this approach.
Certain words within a paragraph are removed and the reader supplies possible words to complete a meaningful sentence.
This activity can be used on an individual basis or as a small group task.
Variations can cater for different ability levels.
Readers repeat a passage aloud until their accuracy rate is above 95% and fluency is attained.
Teacher models the reading and the student follows the text.
The student practices the material aloud, receiving corrective feedback.
This process is repeated until nearly perfect.
Lastly the student's reading is recorded on audiotape.
The recording is played back and the student is giving the chance to hear themselves as a fluent reader, providing added confidence.
A variation of the Repeated Reading strategy
Sessions are 5-10 minutes in length.
Teacher and student read in unison at a natural rate.
Helps a child develop fluency and expression.
Appropriate for peer tutoring .
Language Experience Approach