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Presentation of Industry Training
Transcript of Presentation of Industry Training
Company: United Plantation Research Department (UPRD)
Supervisor: Mr Ho Shui Hing Mycorrhiza Symbiotic mutualistic relationship between soil fungi and fine plant roots
Symbiosis as exchange in material
Two main types:
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) 1. Sampling 2. Assay method and Staining 3. Identification of root infection Methodology Methodology
1. Roots sampling.
2. Assay method and staining
3. Identification of root colonization (%) Strata sampling method is carried out.
The root is observed under microscope and the presence of mycorrhiza is noted.
Result of the observation are recorded as:
Absence of mycorhizza: -
Many mycrorrhizae: +m
Few mycorrhizae: +f The percentage of root infection of each oil palm is calculated by using the formula: Ganoderma Boninense Polypore mushrooms (fungus) which grow on wood.
Causal agent of the basal stem rot (BSR) that infects the oil palms.
Species: Ganoderma boninense Basal Stem Rot (BSR) A disease that caused by ganoderma fungus to infect the roots of oil palms and eventually lead to death.
The most serious disease of oil palm in Malaysia, causing severe economic losses. Symptoms 1. The lower fronds will start to turn brown, wilt, and eventually die. It then progress upwards to younger fronds until the entire crown collapses.
2. Fruiting bodies (basidiocarp) usually formed close to the base of the stem. Tolerance screening of artificially infected plants Checking for Root Infection 1 2 3 Inoculation of ganoderma Rubber wooden blocks with each length of 6cm (cube) are inoculated with G. boninense isolates.
each inoculum is transferred into polythene soil bag with unsterilized soil to grow with 3 months old oil palm.
It is then keep grow in the nursery. Each oil palm of same progeny is check for health by looking at the appearance. It is determined as following:
a. Number of green leaf, yellow leaf and dead leaf.
b. Presence of fruiting body or mycelium of ganoderma Inoculums are taken out and check for the effectiveness of infection by ganoderma. 1. The soil in the root is washed away and then count the number of infected root and healthy root.
2. The degree of infection is labeled from 0 to 4, according to the degree of rotting of plant stem. 0 4 Weevil (elaeidobius kamerunicus) A beetle that benefits the oil palms yield by assures the pollination.
About 1-2mm length
Has a elongated snout
Dark brown body Life Cycle of Weevils Weevils go through four life stages, namely
Adult The average of life expectancy is about 30-50 days.
The average total cycle is about 10 days. Project Trial Details Location: Field 4B, Jendarata Estate
Soil Type: Jawa Series.
Planting Material: UPRD D X P
(Planted since May 2010)
A= Standard Fertilizer Rate (SFR)
B= Rhizagold + SFR
C= Mycogold + SFR
D= Mycoplex + SFR
E= High P Rate
F= Annual EFB + SFR
K= Mycoplex + Terminator G + SFR Recommendation Use some plastic bottle, cut one end and then seal it with sweep net
1. Can withstand high temperature
2. Easy to carry and not too big
3. Netting is fine enough to trap weevils inside Weevils Population Counting Spikes Sampling Spikes Keeping in pipe TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM Problems The netting used fail to prevent the weevils from escape out.
The pipes used are too heavy to carry, cause inconvenience. Understand more about oil palms and the plantation
Get to know about the factors that increase the oil palms harvest yield
Understand about the basal stem rot and how ganoderma infects oil palms
Learned to inoculation and ganoderma cultures
Understand AMF structures and effects to plants
Learned the method to stain and observe for the AMF colonization References 1. How, Y. W. and Nawawi, A. (1985) Ganoderma boninense Pat. from Basal Stem Rot of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika, 8 (3). pp. 425-428.
2. Ganoderma Sequecing Project (2012). Retrieved 25th October, 2012, from http://www.mpob.gov.my/Ganoderma/GanodermaSequencingProject/Ganoderma%20Project.htm
3. Overview of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry 2011 (2012). Retrieved 25th October, 2012, from http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/
4.Ho, Y. W. and Khairuddin, H. (1995). Pathogenicity and histopathology of Ganoderma boninense on oil palm seedlings. Journal of Bioscience 6: 155 164.
5.Importance of Mycorrhizae for Agricultural Crops (2010). ). Retrieved 14th December, 2012, from www.tandjenterprises.com/Mr-MycorrhizaInAgriculture.htm
6.Mulching (2011). Retrieved 19th December, 2012, from http://www.asd-cr.com/paginas/english/articulos/bol06-1en.html
7.Mycoplex (2012). Retrieved 2th December, 2012, from http://www.oriken.com.my/?page_id=864 Data Analysis 15cm depth Evaluation of Treatment Spread 1 ft. 2 ft. 4 ft. Recommendation According to Philips and Hayman (1970), the root samples should heated with water bath in 10% KOH and HCl about 1 hour for the complete clearing process.
Autoclaving method will be an alternative to replace clearing by KOH with even more faster.