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Ending the War

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Jarod Roll

on 30 November 2017

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Transcript of Ending the War

Ending the War

HIS 305

Big fears/hopes over reconversion to peacetime economy:
--By end of 1943, majority of Americans wanted federal government and private businesses to guarantee "full employment"
--African American civil rights activists wanted the federal government to make the Fair Employment Practices Commission permanent
War in Europe:
D-Day: June 6, 1944
Battle of the Bulge: December 1944-January 1945
Italians and Nazis capitulate: April 1945
Battle of Berlin: April-May 1945 (Soviet)
Germany surrenders: May 7, 1945
Tehran Conference, Nov. 1943: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
--opening second front in Europe
--question of Soviet declaration of war against Japan
--shaped of wartime alliance after the war: question of international governance
Yalta Conference, February 1945:
--revisited issue of postwar United Nations
--Soviet involvement against Japan
--established spheres of influence, based on present military occupation, in Europe
War in Asia:
Island hopping:
--Marshall Islands, 1943-1944
--Philippines, 1944
--Iwo Jima, Feb-March 1945
--Firebombing of Japanese Cities, March-April 1945
--900,000 dead
--Truman calls for Unconditional Surrender, April 1945
--Okinawa, April-June 1945
--70,000 Japanese deaths from original force of 77,000
--20,100 dead Americans; 35% casualty rate; if that held, leaders projected 268,000 deaths in invasion of Japan
--July, 1945: successful atomic bomb test in Alamogordo, NM
--Atomic bombs dropped, August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki), 1945
--Japan surrenders, August 15, 1945
What about the war on the homefront?
--US military had 12.3 million members in May 1945
--demobilization began with German surrender
--By December 1945, US had 5.5 million under arms
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