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Toward the Civil War

Events that led to the Civil War. The American Civil War.
by

Mr. Matt_ Jones89

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of Toward the Civil War

The American Civil War ("The War of Northern Agression")
Major Events that led to the American Civil War
Western Expansion
Missouri Compromise
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Law
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dred Scott Decision
Harpers Ferry Raid
Election of 1860
Seccession of the South
Beginning of Civil War

Western Expansion
Louisiana Purchase- 1803
Doubles U.S. in size!
As Americans pushed west the issue of slavery came to the forefront.

The Missouri Compromise
1819- 1st major confrontation over Slavery.
Missouri applies for admission to the Union as a Slave State.
11 Free States vs. 11 Slave States
1820 Maine enters as a Free State to maintain balance along with Missouri.
Congress draws line at 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude.
The Compromise of 1850
1850 California applies for statehood as a free state.
Henry Clay (Congressman from Kentucky) pleads for compromise but is denied by John C. Calhoun.
Calhoun calls for slavery to be allowed in the West and a tough fugitive-slave law.
Mexican Cession- Fear that is might all become Free State Territory because of California.
Daniel Webster- Proposes 4 Part Solution
California enters as Free State
Mexican Cession divided up into New Mexico and Utah- Voters would decide issue of slavery.
Slave trade was ended in Washington, D.C.
Strict Fugitive-Slave Law Passed.
Fugitive Slave Law
Required all citizens to be legally obligated to return runaway slaves.
People who helped slaves escape would of been jailed and severely fined.
Enraged Northerners
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852- Harriet Beecher Stow
Sold more than 300,000 copies.
Told story of Uncle Tom who was an enslaved African American and his cruel master Simon Legree.
Stowe wrote about the evils and cruelty of slavery.
Transformed issue of slavery from political to moral dilemma.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854-Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill to solve issue of slavery in the Nebraska Territory.
He proposed that Nebraska be split into two territories- Kansas and Nebraska.
Settlers of the new territories would vote to decide if the state would be a FREE or SLAVE state.
Kansas-Nebraska Controversy
This act effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise.
Southerners supported the act while Northerners viewed it as an act of betrayal.
Violence ensued in the Kansas Territory which became known as "Bleeding Kansas".
Bleeding Kansas
More than 200 people died over the issue of slavery.
Anti slavery and pro slavery forces set up rival governments.
Lawrence, Kansas
John Brown
Dred Scott Decision
1857- Landmark Supreme Court Case
Dred Scott was a slave who applied for freedom.
He claimed because his master had taken him to the free territories of Illinois and Wisconsin, he should be free.
The SC ruled that because Scott was not considered a citizen, but property, he could not file a lawsuit.
Dred Scott Continued...
The Court also ruled that Congress had no power to decide the issue of slavery in the territories.
This meant that slavery was legal in all the territories and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
Harpers Ferry Raid
1859- John Brown and a group of followers organized a raid on Harpers Ferry.
Harpers Ferry was a Federal Arsenal, containing arms and munitions for the Federal Army.
Brown hoped that slaves would come to arsenal and then he would lead a massive slave uprising.
Brown believed that violence was the only way to end slavery.
Election of 1860
Mid 1850's- People opposed to slavery were looking for a new voice in government.
Free Soilers, Northern Democrats, and anti-slavery Whigs = The Foundation of the Republican Party.
Republican Party
Their main goal was not to get rid of slavery in the south but to keep it out of Western U.S. Territories.
The Party grew and was ready to challenge the Democratic and Whig Parties in 1856.
Election of 1860 Continued...
In 1860 the Republicans ran Abraham Lincoln.
Lincoln was known to oppose slavery from a moral standpoint.
Lincoln, however was not willing to end slavery at the risk of tearing the Union apart.
Secession of the South
Lincoln's election produced a strong reaction amongst Southerners.
They felt as though the country had put an abolitionist in the White House.
Southerners felt as though all they could do to preserve their economy and social order was to SECEDE (Leave) from the Union.
Secession Continued...
1860- South Carolina Seceded from the Union.
1861- By February of 1861, Alabama, Florida, Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi had seceded.
The 7 States met in 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama, where they created the Confederate States of America and named Jefferson Davis their President.
Lincoln's Inauguration-
After being sworn in Lincoln announced that it was unlawful for any state to leave the Union.
He did declare that their would be no war unless the South Started it.
The South seized control of all Federal buildings- Forts and Post Offices.
Were attempting to seize Fort Sumter in South Carolina, but the Union commander, Major Robert Anderson refused to surrender.
The Confederates began to shell the fort and Anderson was forced to retreat when he ran out of ammunition- THE WAR HAD BEGUN!
Full transcript