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Canada in the 1990's
Transcript of Canada in the 1990's
By: Gabby, Litty, Nicole, Diandra, Redate and Erica
Economics in the 1990's
In 1990, there was a recession. It caused a 3.2% decrease in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of Canada. The 3 main causes of this recession were:
The U.S. economy slowing down
The constricting monetary policy (the control of money supply and interest rates) by Bank of Canada to decrease inflation
The restricts on fiscal policy (decisions made by the Prime Minister relating to taxes and government spending) that came from interest payments on the country’s debt
The New Tax: GST
On December 13, 1990, the Senate passed the unpopular Goods and Services Tax (GST).
On January 1, 1991, Brian Mulroney's Conservative government puts the GST into effect
The tax was now 7% and it replaced the 13.5% Manufacturer's Sales Tax (MST)
It was said to increase a family of four's weekly budget by $15
The Bank Merge Rejection
In December of 1998, the federal government rejected the proposal that the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) and Toronto-Dominion (TD) should join and the Bank of Montreal (BMO) and the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) should merge.
This was because:
There were too few financial institutions that had too much economic power in Canada
The Canadian financial services sector had a reduction in competition
The Canadian government's flexibility to address future problems decreased
There was a 4 point increase in unemployment rates from 1989-1991. This is due to the recession that occurred during this time.
Unemployment rates were at 11.2% in 1991. They were unevenly distributed throughout Canada. The highest unemployment rates were in the Atlantic provinces and the lowest were in Prairies.
Trade in Canada
On December 17, 1992, The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was signed by the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. It was the successor to the successful Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA). The NAFTA has the world's largest free trade area
On July 5, 1997, Canada signed a bilateral (two-country) agreement with Chile called the CCFTA.
In the 1990s, there were three prime ministers; Martin Brian Mulroney, A. Kim Campbell, and Joseph Jaques Jean Chrétien.
- Mulroney (September 1984-June 1993):
While he was in office, the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed
- A. Kim Campbell (June 1993-November 1993):
First woman in Canadian history to be prime minister
- Joseph Jaques Jean Chrétien (November 1993-December 2003):
Held the office of the prime minister in Canada for over a decade
Politics - Canada
-Since the 1990s, the Canadian party system had new parties arising and winning seats in the Parliament although had shown signs of uncertainty.
-For most of the 1990s, the Liberal Party kept a steady hold on the prime minister's office but later began to quickly lose popularity in the later years.
-During the 1990s, some thought the NDP would disappear entirely for the reason that they've been suffering from a bad reputation of being unpopular.
-After the decline of the Social Credit Party, the Liberal Party had began to make a comeback.
Prime Ministers of Canada:
Politics - Canada
-Ontario lawyers vote no longer to swear an oath to the Queen. (1992)
-The federal government passed legislation banning discrimination against homosexuals. (1996)
-The federal government promised 350 000 square km of territory in the North to be called Nunavut as a land claim with the Inuit. (1990)
Politics - Quebec
There was a variety of music during the 1990s including pop, rap and rock (alternative music). Taste in music changed a number of times as the events during the decade changed.
Early 1990s - Techno, Hip-hop and Rap
- Techno: Groups such as Technotronic and C+C Music Factory
- Hip-Hop: Artists such as MC Hammer, Tone Loc, Vanilla Ice, Tag Team
- Rap: Rappers such as Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg (known then as Snoop Doggy Dogg), Nelly, Andre 3000, Jay-Z, Tupac and Notorious B.I.G.
1992 - Early 1995 - Alternative Rock Music
- There was a change in mainstream radio songs
- Bands like Pearl Jam, Soundgarden and Nirvana became popular
among teens because their songs were about the struggles of teenage life
- It was widely known as the Grunge Era
- It sparked a new fashion trend among the teenagers
- Much like the 60s, the Grunge Era was an era of rebellion
Late 1995 - "Happy Rock"
- People became tired of the hopelessness that rock songs contained and “happy rock” was introduced
- Bands like Hootie and the Blowfish and Sister Hazel became popular through their upbeat and positive songs which people preferred over the negativity of rock songs.
Rest of 1990s - Bubblegum Pop and RnB
- Artists like Christina Aguilera, The Spice Girls, Britney Spears, TLC and Destiny's Child took control of the mainstream music for the rest of the 1990s.
- Later on boy bands like Backstreet Boys, N Sync and 98 Degrees gained more popularity than New Kids on the Block during the 1980s.
Fashion during the 1990s was quite diverse. Clothes were simple, extravagant, and professional. Neon, however, was very popular.
Skirts (either above or below the knee)
Suits with jacket but loose blazer
- came in many colours such as neutral brown to vibrant red
- pinstripe suits were popular
Clothes with stripes of basic colours
Neatly fitted coats and dresses with narrow belts
Bright coloured leather bondage dresses
Dresses that fit perfectly but weren’t too tight
The 1990s contained some of the most significant scientific discoveries and technological inventions in human history.
– In 1990 Canadarm was made for the Canadian Space Agency. It was one of the greatest advances in space technology.
World Wide Web (Internet)
- In 1990 Tim Berners Lee created HTML and HTTP and the public was able to start using the Internet in 1991.
Human Genome Project
– In 1990 scientists started working on the Human Genome project and completed it in 2003. This project helped scientists discover mysteries of human genetics and learn more about human DNA.
Crime Linkage Analysis System
- In 1991 the RCMP and several other police forces created this database. It helped show the possible links between known criminals and unsolved crimes.
– Edmonton Oilers won the Stanley Cup
– Toronto Blue Jays won their first World Series
- Canada won 4 Gold and 1 Bronze medal in the Summer Olympics
– Montreal Canadiens won the Stanley Cup
– Toronto Blue Jays won their second World Series
– Toronto Raptors and Vancouver Grizzlies debut
- Donovan Bailey won Gold in the 100m sprint
-In 1992, Québec rejected the Charlottetown Accord (consent to the Constitution Act of 1982 and to enter into Canada’s constitutional agreement)
-Robert Bourassa, leader of the Liberal Party
Became premier again in 1989 but lost in 1992 after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord (an agreement to strengthen provincial powers and declare Québec a" recognizably different" society) and the Charlottetown Accord
He was replaced by David Johnson
In 1994 the Liberal Party was defeated by the Parti Québécois, now led by Jacque Parizeau
-In 1994, the Parti Québecois won a narrow majority in Québec and the Inuit of Northern Québec arranged for self-government
-In 1995, the Québec Cree and Inuit peoples held their own vote and rejected separation from Canada
Premiers of Quebec
In the 1990s, there were four premiers in Québec; Robert Bourassa, Daniel Johnson, Jacques Parizeau and Lucien Bouchard.
-Robert Bourassa (1970-1976, 1985-1994):
Leader of the Liberal Party
-Daniel Johnson (1994):
Replaced Robert Bourassa
Leader of the Liberal Party
-Jaques Parizeau (1994-1995):
Leader of the Parti Québécois
Defeated the Liberal Party in 1994
-Lucien Bouchard (1996-2001):
Leader of the Parti Québécois
Felt betrayed by the Meech Lake Accord and resigned then later formed Bloc Québécois
-In the mid 1990s, Canada stopped cost sharing with other provinces of the most important social services and social assistance across the country.
-In the late 1990s, most federal and provincial governments limited employment services for persons with disabilities.
-In 1969, gambling became legalized but in the 1980s and 1990s, it became wildly popular.
A huge way for provinces to increase income without raising taxes
Examples: variety of legal games of chance, including slot machines, casinos, lottery tickets, animal racing and video lottery booths
May lead to various problems; addiction, debt, depression, etc.
In Canada, it still remains illegal to run a private casino
-Since the 1990s, welfare regulations have gotten more severe; it is expected that those on welfare are still seeking jobs or otherwise making plans for their future.
Social Policies (cont'd)
-In 1994, the federal department of Human Resources Development (HRDC) administered/contributed to the financing of unemployment insurance, student loans, transfers to the provinces to share the cost of social assistance and post-secondary education, and a wide range of employment and social development programs.
-Machinery was not yet a big part for governments, labour, and business to act in full collaboration in labour market policies but that changed.
-Business and labour organizations played an increasingly large role
Ex: Canadian Labour Market and Productivity Centre, and the Canadian Labour Force Development Board
There were a few social changes in Canada during the 1990s that had to do with:
Women and education
First Nations People
During the early 1990s Canada opened new avenues for other immigrants to enter the country, especially those with employable skills or significant financial resources.
- A number entrepreneurial-class immigrants have come from Hong Kong to seek safe harbours for themselves, their families, and their assets in advance of the Chinese takeover of Hong Kong in 1997.
- Immigration from Africa (mainly from Africa, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, Uganda, and Nigeria) also grew in the 1990s.
- Some of these newcomers were professionals with academic qualifications seek better working conditions in Canada.
With the economic delay of the 1990s, Canadian immigration re-emerged as a topic of public debate. This was only natural, given the the continuing impact of immigration on Canadian society.
Women and Education
- In the last 20 years, dropout rates have fallen dramatically among both women and men.
In 1990, 14% of women aged 20 to 24 years had dropped out of high school compared to 19% of men in the same age group.
- Since the early 1990s, women have made up the majority of full-time students enrolled in under- graduate university programs.
- In 1992, 15% of women and 15.6% of men in that age group had a university degree
- Women and men tend to choose different university programs.
For instance, in 2008, only 22% of graduates of architecture, engineering and related services programs were women (a small increase from 18% in 1990). In the mathematics, computer and information sciences programs, 30 % of graduates were women, slightly down from 35% in 1990.
First Nations people
The First Nations people had a big dispute in the year 1990 with the government of Québec and the federal government itself.
This dispute escalated and became known as the
THE OKA CRISIS
The Oka Crisis was a land dispute between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka, Quebec, Canada. The mayor called for Sûreté du Québec (Québec's provincial police) intervention. They claimed that the Mohawks had become violent along the borders of the barricade. This crisis began on July 11th, 1990 and lasted until September 26th, 1990.
On July 11th, 1990, the mayor called for Sûreté du Québec intervention because the Mohawks have become violent along the borders of the barricade.
The women of the Mohawk Nation decided that the weapons should only be used if the SQ fired on the barricade and to use them defensively as possible.
One of the SQ officer was shot in the face and later died.
The Mohawks refused to take down their barricade, so the SQ put up their own, blocking entry to Oka and Kahnesatake.
The Mohawks of Kahnesatake were joined by Native communities all over Canada in support.
The Mohawks set up their own barricade blocking the Mercier Bridge and many highways.
The Canadian government agreed to buy the land being fought over, in order to prevent construction
Racism was strong from the white residents of Oka and Chateaguay and they displayed their hatred for the Mohawk people. They called the Mohawks "
The RCMP were sent in once it became apparent that the SQ had lost control.
It didn't take long before the RCMP was overwhelmed by the mobs and Mohawks.
Resulting in the army being brought in.
On August 29th, the Mohawks of Kahnawake negotiated a settlement deal with the Quebec government. Traffic again was flowing.
By September 26, the Mohawks dismantled their guns and threw them in a fire and then walked out of the pines and back to the reserve. Many were detained and arrested by the Canadian Forces and SQ. Then the Oka Crisis finally came to an end.
Soldiers drew racist graffiti on the side of their tank while eating apples. The graffiti's message being, "Who ya gonna call? Chug busters."
Beginning in the 18th century the Mohawk people had been claiming the land in Oka, Québec but were ignored by the government. In 1961, a golf course was built on the sacred burial ground, the government ignoring the claims of the First Nations.
In 1989, the mayor of Oka, Jean Ouellette announced that he was going to allow the expansion of the golf course and authorized the construction of 60 luxury condominiums in the Pines.
Not surprisingly, the government ignored the protests by the Mohawks of Kanesatake and concerns by the Québec Minister of the Environment and Minister of Native Affairs and construction was scheduled to begin.
Peacekeeping Mission in Rwanda
• In 1994 when an ethnic dispute broke out between the Tutsi and the Hutus group over 800,000 people died
• With the support of the United Nations Canada responded by taking action through military support and humanitarian relief
• Canada sent over 200 medical, engineer and support personnel
Peacekeeping in Somalia
• In 1991 Somalia was hit by a severe drought
• The drought left around 220,000 dead and at least 1-2 million people at risk of starving to death
• 900 soldiers were sent to Somalia on a peacekeeping mission
• Canada in partnership with UNOSOMI (United Nations Operations in Somalia) provided aid and established peace by providing food to the people,escorting famine relief convoys, destroying confiscated weapons etc.
Gulf War Peacekeeping Mission
On August 2, 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, Canada was one of the 35 countries quick to respond. Canada sent forces to the Persian Gulf to support the UN in its Security Council.
• Canada sent around 4,000 service personnel to participate in the intervention and 2,700 personnel in the Persian Gulf region.
• During the war Canadian Forces provided combat air patrols in the north and central Gulf.
• As conflict continued the Canadian Air Task Group took on other combat roles such as sweep and escort for coalition bombing missions and soon after air-to-ground bombing missions.
Canada entered a treaty that included the United States and Mexico called the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
• NAFTA is a trade agreement that sets rules, between Canada, the United States and Mexico, of trade and investments
• It was created to eliminate tariff barriers
• It is the largest free market in the world
• Since NAFTA began, the economy grew stronger, more jobs were created, there are better prices in consumer goods
Organization of American States (OAS)
Canada’s priorities at the OAS are democracy and human rights, security and conflict prevention, and institutional reform.
- In 1993 Biocrypt Inc. created a fingerprint reader which soon replaced PINs, keys and cards.
- In 1995 James Gosling invented Java which is a popular computer programming language ued by many website developers.
– In 1996 scientists successfully cloned a sheep named Dolly. This experiment was a huge step towards advancement in genetic cloning and nuclear transfer sciences.
- In 1998 two PhD scholars created Google which is now a popular search engine
- In 1995 the internet was fully commercialised and everyone gained access to it. Offices and schools began to use it and soon expanded into what it is today.
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- Bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam helped shape a new fashion trend in the 1990s
- People began cutting their jeans into shorts and bought oversized flannel shirts or denim jackets
- Women wore heavier make-up and dyed their hair dark colours
- Leggings, combat boots and band shirts also became popular
- Choker necklaces also appeared
- Men grew their hair until their shoulders and had goatees
- In the late 1980s-1990s, Video Games skyrocketed in popularity
-Companies like Nintendo, Sega, Capcom, Playstation, Squaresoft (now Square Enix), Naughty Dog, Bethesda, Valve and Microsoft were the top game developers.
- Most of these companies came from Japan then soon expanded into the western markets, the United States, Canada and Europe.
- Many video game developers are headquartered here in provinces such as British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario.
- Companies located in Canada are: Rockstar Games, EA, Ubisoft, Capcom Vancouver, BioWare and many others.
- Canada became a hub for Video Game developers and many travelled north to work here.
- Video Games became innovative with the introduction of 3D models and polygons.
- Late in the 90s, online gaming was introduced which was called MMORPGs (Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games)
- The most popular games/franchises were: Pokemon, Legend of Zelda, Super Mario, Star Fox, Tekken, Diablo, Half-Life, Kirby, Tomb Raider, Resident Evil, Silent Hill, Rollercoaster Tycoon and etc.
- The introduction of the Game Boy in the late 1989 began a new generation in video game portability. Soon the Game Boy colour came out and was much wider. Then late in the 1990s, the Gameboy SP came out with a now rechargeable battery.
Canada did not choose to join OAS at first when it began but became a permanent observer in 1972.
In 13 November 1989, Canada signed in the Charter of the OAS and the decision was ratified on 8 January 1990.
Today, Canada is the second biggest contributor representing 12.36% of the Regular Budget.
Movies and Television
- Many sitcoms came out in the 1990s, the most popular ones being: Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Friends, Seinfeld, Full House, Boy Meets World, Ellen, Sabrina the Teenage Witch and etc.
- Movies like, Forrest Gump, Jurassic Park, Titanic, Home Alone, Braveheart and Toy Story also surfaced in the 90s.
- The 90s were also the peak for Disney's Renaissance movies which consist of Pocahontas, The Little Mermaid, Mulan, Beauty and The Beast, Tarzan and The Lion King.
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