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Sustainable Cities

Capstone Final Presenation
by

Anne Rosenblatt

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Sustainable Cities

Sustainable Cities
Environmental Studies Capstone
2014

Vancouver
Noteworthy Criteria
1. Energy and Emissions
2. Governance
3. Waste Reduction
Oslo
Toronto
Noteworthy Criteria
1. Governance
2. Energy and Emissions
3. Waste Reduction
Copenhagen
Curitiba
Noteworthy Criteria
Transportation
Governance
Waste Reduction
Community Engagement
Bus Rapid Transit
70% of transportation happens through this public system. Focuses on efficiency and accessibility.
"From River to River"
A government initiative to treat the water going back into the water supply. At 98% currently.
Waste Exchange
The public's trash is exchanged on certain days for fresh produce and transit passes
Government sponsored initiative to ensure all waste is disposed of properly.
Key Initiatives:
Los Angeles
Noteworthy Criteria
Community Engagement
Water Responsibility
Public Transportation
Key Initiatives
30/10 Initiative
Completing 30 years of work in just 10 years
Add 77 million boardings while reducing 191 million vehicle miles
Complete Streets Initiative
design streets for everyone who want to use the streets, not just the drivers
increase sidewalk width, bicycle lanes, etc.
2035 General Plan
Promote agriculture in areas that have been historically farmed
Promoting pedestrian-oriented development around transit stops
Open Data
Los Angeles City website now includes raw data compiled from city departments of water, power, transportation, etc.
Ideas for a Sustainable LA page on Mayor Garcetti's website gives residents a forum to speak their minds to the Chief Sustainability Officer as well as to each other

Noteworthy Criteria

Governance
Transportation
Land Use
Energy and Emissions
Green Mobility
Of daily travel by Oslo inhabitants in 2012, 29% is on foot, 30% by public transportation, and 4% by bicycle

Carbon Neutral Public Transport - by 2020 Oslo's public transport system will be entirely powered by electricity and biofuels

Oslo has already established 500 public on-street charging stations and plans to install another 400 by 2015

Electric vehicles are allowed to park and charge for free, are exempt from road tolls and allowed to drive in the bus lanes

Community Involvement
An annual Children's Environmental Festival is held in the cities largest park. A main goal of the festival is to involve youth in issues surrounding the environment and renewable enrgy

Each year Oslo awards the Urban Environment Prize, including a monetary prize, to any individual or group who's environmental efforts set a good example for others


Free University of the Environment
Building made out of recycled telephone poles. Example of the community based approach to sustainability they have taken.
Blue-Green Urban Areas
The city is actively reopening waterways to make them accessible to people and other species, while also creating eco-friendly, sustainable development on the waterfronts

Emissions
Oslo is planning to halve greenhouse gas emissions relative to 1991 levels by 2030 and be entirely zero-emission by 2050

Gas from landfills are being actively collected and converted into electricity and heating

Dynamic street lights are replacing traditional lights, to the tune of 70% energy savings

Berlin
Noteworthy Criteria
Land Use
Water Responsibility
Energy and Emissions
The Berlin Solar Campaign
Launched in 2000, the initiative offers grants for solar panel installations. Berlin now has the largest photovoltaic system on a residential building in Europe

Efficient Housing
Berlin's continual restoration of aging residential buildings has lead to the reduction in energy consumption from 150kWh to 80 kWh per year per square meter

In 1997, it was mandated that 75% of new building construction every year must be fitted with solar thermal energy strategies
Philadelphia
Noteworthy Criteria

Land Use
Governance
Energy and Emissions
Community Engagement
Key

Initiatives
Green City, Clean Water:
An initiative led by the Philadelphia Water Department that incorporates green infrastructure through the water system, designing a landscape to not only reduce stormwater runoff, but also captures the water source. While one of the biggest challenges that the city faces is the water management system, this 25 year plan has made great progress with this small scale approach using low-impact development technology.

PHS: Philadelphia Horticulture Society’s Land Care Program
Reduces land vacancy by reclaiming lots, working towards a greener city. Whether transforming spaces into parks, gardens, open green areas, the impact of this initiative on the community is great. The health benefits, increase in property value, greater sense of pride and importance of place within the community are all achieved as community members participate in the process and become invested in their neighborhood.
Water Use
Berlin's water supply is extremely efficient, with only a 5% leakage loss

Water supply demands have fallen from 292 million cubic meters in 1997 to 196 million cubic meters in 2007. This can be mostly attributed to the adoption of efficient appliances and changes in lifestyle

Emissions
In 2010, Berlin reached its goal of 25% reduced carbon dioxide emissions, compared to 1990 levels. The city now aims to have a 40% reduction by 2020, as compared to 1990 levels

The number of coal stoves has dropped from 400,000 in 1990 to 60,000 in 2008.

Burlington
Noteworthy Criteria
Community Engagement

Local Food and Agriculture
Key Initiatives
Burlington Legacy Plan
A 30 year initiative action plan for 2030 that involves great community participation throughout the process of planning, feedback, and execution. The 4 E’s (Equity and diversity, Economics, Education, and Environment) emphasize the interconnected variables that compose a healthy community.

Burlington School Food Project
Provides 4,000 school children in the district access to locally grown food, offering healthier options in the cafeteria. This program also incorporates hands on education to raise awareness of food systems and create lasting connections to the community.
Magnolia Bistro:
The first green certified restaurant in VT, Magnolia Bakery is a leading exemplar of a restaurant participating in a sustainable food system by partnering with local businesses (bakeries, creameries, etc) and buying organically to support the local economy. They also recycle and compost over 90% of their waste.
Key Initiatives
Goal to be the Greenest City by 2020
With an aggressive strategy and a list of goals and indicators working towards this goal.
Green Bin Program
Residential buildings can take advantage of this citywide composting.
Strict Green Building Codes (all new developments must be carbon neutral)
Became the first Canadian Municipality to adopt a comprehensive Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.

Hydroelectric Power makes up 90% of power supply
A section of the cities Action Plan is devoted to doubling green jobs, integrating sustainability into the cities economy
Bike Share Program: In the near future Philadelphia will be the home to a Bike Share program, following the successes of other cities (for ex. Paris, Toronto, Boston) which will provide a healthier more sustainable mean of transportation.

Tree Philly: A tree planting initiative lead by the Philadelphia Parks and Recreation that gives away trees to residents of the city to contribute to the efforts of creating a greener urban environment which positively affects property values, air quality, and stormwater management.
Singapore
Andorra
Noteworthy Criteria
Transportation

~74% of Andorra's roads are unpaved
Buses are the main method of transportation
Does not have an airport, and all traffic in and out of Andorra is supported by trains from France and Spain
Andorra's main source of income is in tourism, with over 9 million visitors a year.
Noteworthy Criteria
Governance
Community Engagement
Land Use
Energy and Emissions
Waste Reduction
Governance, Transportation, and Land Use
"Green Wave" -- redesigned traffic lights and pathways to prioritize cyclists and pedestrians
26 suburban commuter cycling routes
"Urban Parks" -- 80% of residents live within 300m of a park or recreational area
Goal of 90% by 2015
Implementing green space access at crisis centers


"Waste and Resource Plan"
20% of Denmark’s energy comes from renewable sources
goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050
52.5% of municipal waste is recycled
45% incinerated in at an energy-capturing facility
2.5% of waste goes to landfills
Over-development has stunted local agriculture, which used to be top source of economic income in Andorra
Most of Andorra's food is imported because they do not have the resources to sustain through local foods
Natural beauty is becoming scarce in Andorra as more and more buildings are squeezed into the small municipality
No significant sustainability initiatives reported.
1. Water Responsibility
2. Economic Engagement
3. Community Engagement
4. Land Use
Noteworthy Criteria
NEWater Program to lower consumption
rainwater collection (20%), recycled water (30%), and desalination (10%)
The city is working towards complete self-sufficiency
Water Research & Development Centers encourage economic growth by hiring out to private companies
The city aims to be at the cutting edge of technology and share ideas globally through their annual conference.
Green Mark Certified
Promote Green Building with strict standards for new buildings and cash-incentives for existing buildings
10% Energy Decrease Challenge, 10-liter Water Savings
The public is included in the efforts with city wide challenges that incorporate education

Energy Reduction and Infrastructure
Largest Deep Lake Water Cooling System -- reduces energy necessary to cool buildings by 90%
urban wind turbines
greatest density of solar panels in Canada
"Tower Renewal Project" --redesigning old tower buildings to be more energy efficient
Eco-Links between parks supports the biodiversity of the city.
Land Use is a big concern to the city, redevelopment and green space are focuses of their plan for the future. 10% of land is already devoted to green space, this is set to increase.
Private companies are involved in these land use initiatives.
"Green Roof Initiative"
Buildings with a Gross Floor Area of 2,000 sq m are required to incorporate a green roof into their design
Reduces energy consumption and urban heat island effect
Controls rainwater run-off
Opportunity for food production and maintenance of biodiversity

Education is a large part of success throughout the city. Environmental courses were added to public education in 1989.
Vancouver, Canada
British Columbia, Canada
California, United States
Los Angeles, CA
Singapore
Norway
Oslo, Norway
Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paraná, Brazil
Curitiba, Brazil
Ontario, Canada
Toronto, Canada
Berlin, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Pennsylvania, United States
Philadelphia, PA
Vermont, United States
Burlington, VT
Andorra
Vancouver, Canada
Vancouver, Canada
Los Angeles, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Singapore
Singapore
Oslo, Norway
Oslo, Norway
Curitiba, Brazil
Curitiba, Brazil
Toronto, Canada
Toronto, Canada
Berlin, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Philadelpha, PA
Philadelphia, PA
Burlington, VT
Burlington, VT
Andorra
Andorra
Full transcript