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The Nature of Deception
What is deception?
Deceptive communication occurs when a speaker transmits information knowingly and intentionally for the purpose of creating a false belief in the receiver.
Nature of Deception
How does society view deception?
Deceptive Communication Behaviors
When you suspect deception, remember that . . .
Familiarity affects deception success
Expressive people are better liars
Culture matters, but only sometimes
Motivation to succeed at lying doesn’t always help
Suspicion may not improve your detection ability
Non-interactive contexts are best for detecting deception
What's in your lie?
When is a lie not a lie?
You are not lying if you believe what you’re saying is true
You’re not lying if you don’t intend for others to believe what you’re saying
You cannot lie to yourself
High Stakes vs. Low Stakes
Why Do We Lie?
To benefit the hearer
To help them get to know someone
To protect their privacy
To avoid conflict
To make themselves look better
To help them avoid punishment
To protect them from distress
To help them get revenge
To hurt others for no reason
To protect their livelihood
To amuse themselves
2 Different Types of Lying
: communicating false information as though it were true
: overstating something that is true in principle
: leaving out parts of a story to create a false impression
: making ambiguous statements to give the false impression that one has said something one hasn’t
So to recap...Deceptive Communication
***seeks a specific effect or outcome
***(if it’s successful) occurs without the conscious awareness of the target
***involves two or more persons except for self-deception or “being in denial”
***relies on verbal and non-verbal behavior
DePaulo & Kashy (1988): college students lied to their mothers in half of their conversations
DePaulo & Bell (1996) Married couples lied in 1 out of 10 interactions with their partners.
LYING IS COMMON
Hample (1980) respondents
reported lying an avg. of 13 times per week.
DePaulo & Kashy (1998): the average person lied to 34% of the people with whom she/he interacted in a typical week.
“I never had sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky, and I never, ever told anyone to lie.
Genesis 3:4- 'You will not certainly die,' the serpent said to the woman.
Nonverbal vs. Verbal
Detecting deception is difficult
Many people look for the wrong cues -- and ignore the right cues -- when they believe they are being lied to
Our truth bias causes us to believe most of what we hear
Interpersonal Deception Theory
Attempts to explain the manner in which individuals while engaged in face-to-face communication, deal with, on both conscious and subconscious levels, actual or perceived deception.
~ Buller & Burgoon (1996)
How are we able to lie so much in close relationships?
Tolhuizen (1990) revealed that 85.7 percent of respondents had deceived their dating partners within the previous two weeks
92 percent of individuals admitted having lied to their romantic partners (Knox, Schacht, Holt, & Turner, 1993)
Research suggests that once suspicion has been introduced, romantic partners’ deception detection improves (Stiff, Kim, & Ramesh, 1989). Thus, you probably have a fairly good chance of deceiving your partner unless she or he is suspicious; in that case, you are more likely to get caught.
the tendency to not suspect one’s intimates of deception