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Transcript of BRUCCELLOSIS
There is no treatment for Brucellosis. Prevention of Brucellosis is accomplished by official calfhood vaccination of heifer calves. Vaccination must be done by an accredited veterinarian at calf ages that vary from two to four months using standard dosage vaccine, or from 4 to 12 months using reduced dosage vaccine. Each calf must be identified as officially vaccinated in compliance with state and federal regulations. Quarantines are imposed on infected herds by state and federal authorities until the herd has been proven free of the disease.
How Common Is The Disease
Brucellosis has been reported throughout the world since its discovery in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and has long been considered an important disease in man, cattle, goats and swine. It has been found in bison, elk, moose, Dall sheep, caribou and several species of deer. It has been diagnosed in dogs, foxes, hares, mice, rats, ticks and fleas. The disease is relatively rare in deer in the U.S., slightly more significant in elk, bison and moose. Hares in Europe have been afflicted with the disease for many years, but it is not felt that they play an important part in maintaining brucellosis in domestic animals. In Michigan, brucellosis has never been identified in any wildlife species.
With the disease it was thought to be transmitted through the sharing of feed with an infected animal, but recently scientists have found a strain of the disease in marine animals.
How the disease is spread.
CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS
The disease is caused by a group of bacteria known scientifically as the genus Brucella. Three species of Brucella: A. abortus, principally affecting cattle and bison; B. suis, principally affecting swine and reindeer ; and B. melitensis, principally affecting goats but not present in the United States.
The symptoms are miscarriage or premature calving, swelling of the utters and joints.
In cattle and bison, the disease
currently localizes in the reproductive organs and/or the udder. Bacteria are shed in milk or via the aborted fetus, afterbirth, or other reproductive tract discharges.