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Particle Theory: Expansion and Contraction

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by

Dayton Brown

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Particle Theory: Expansion and Contraction

Particle Theory: Expansion and Contraction
Why particles expand and contract?
- When particles are heated they cause the substance to expand.

- When particles are cooled they cause the substance to contract

- This is due to the particles creating more space between one another (heated) or decreasing the space between one another (cooling).

- Solids will have less kinetic energy causing the to move _________
Solids
- When solids are heated the substance expands as the particles move slightly away from one another. The solid can become malleable in this state.

- When solids are cooled the particles will move closer together, resulting in less kinetic energy. The solids can become brittle in this state.

- Examples of this are:
- Bridges
- Sidewalks
- Metals
Liquids
- Liquids expand slightly when they are heated.
- The particles move faster and further away from each other.
- Water can expand!

- When liquids are cooled they move closer to one another and the liquid flows slower due to decreased viscosity.
Gases
- Gases behave the same way as the other types of matter, but take up more area from energized particles.
- Particles increase in speed and become less dense
- A good way to see expansion or contraction of gases is in containers.
- Helium balloons in the cold
- A cars tires
- Inflated balls on the playground
Water
Water is an exception to the rule

- When water freezes it EXPANDS
- This is why potholes and broken statues form from cold weather.
- The mechanical weathering term for this is
frost wedging.
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