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On the Nature of Modern Prejudice

Review of research on contemporary prejudice
by

H. Colleen Sinclair

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of On the Nature of Modern Prejudice

So now...
Cures?
As a result
Not Your Grandparents' Prejudice
Death by 1,000 Cuts
Understanding Modern Prejudice
Explicit
Blatant
Hostile
Generalized
And then...
The Way We Were
-Only about 10% of individuals endorse blatant race biases
-Interracial marriages are at an all-time high
-Discrimination (and hate crimes) are illegal
Some groups more so than others...
For example...
Nonetheless...
Implicit Bias
Many prejudices today are:
-Subtle
-Implicit
-Aversive
-Ambivalent
-Symbolic
And thus debatable because they don't look like this
I may be uncomfortable around you...
I may charge you more...
I may not help you...
Especially if I can say you deserve it
Instead, I may hurt you
I'm not biased, but...
Eberhardt and colleagues analyzed the photos of African-American men convicted of cross-race murder, rating how stereotypically black the men’s facial features appeared. Even after controlling for other variables such as severity of crime, attractiveness, SES, and prior convictions, black men were more than twice as likely to be carrying the death sentence if they had stereotypically black facial features.
“The Police Officer’s Dilemma” (Correll, et al., 2002)
Video game simulation
Perpetrators and Innocent Bystanders
Varied by race
Split-second decisions: Shoot or not?
DV: Error rate and speed
“The threshold to decide to shoot is set lower for African-Americans than for whites”
Initial offers:
White men: $725 over invoice
White women: $935 over invoice
Black women: $1,195 over invoice
Black men: $1,687 over invoice
(Even after bartering 40 minutes, could still only get it down to $1,551)
Ayres, 2001
But pay you less
In 2010, the latest year for which data are available, white women earned 78.1 percent compared to white men, African American women earned 89.8 percent compared to black men, Hispanic women earned 91.3 percent compared to Hispanic men, and Asian women earned 79.7 percent compared to Asian men.

The wage gap is lower for black and Hispanic women in part because wages for people of color tend to be lower overall. This gap occurs within racial/ethnic groups as well.

In 2010, according to the Census Bureau, African Americans earned only 58.7 percent of what whites earned, while Hispanics earned only 69.1 percent of what whites earned.
92% of participants helped white "victims" vs. 70% of participants helped black "victims" in emergency situations.
And when they did...they were slower
Kunstman & Plant, 2008
Sit further away
Speak to you less
Smile at you less
Stumble over words more
Ummmm...Hesitate
McConnell & Leibold, 2001
Which will, in turn, reinforce negative attitudes
Participants observed an interracial interaction in which a White actor expressed friendly or unfriendly nonverbal behaviors toward a Black target (e.g., low eye contact, large seating distance). The results show that newly formed implicit attitudes toward the Black actor were shaped accordingly.
Castelli et al., 2012
Three studies found that participants demonstrated greater racial bias after receiving feedback that they were progressing on egalitarian goals versus either feedback that they were failing on egalitarian goals or no feedback. Specifically, participants who were told that they were progressively becoming more egalitarian sat farther away from Blacks and closer to Whites and demonstrated greater implicit racial prejudice.
Particularly when I think I have few biases
Mann & Kawakami, 2012
If I hire you that is...
"Are Emily and Brendon more hireable than Lakeisha and Jamal?" (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2002) - 50% more callbacks

When candidates are excellent, no difference, but when qualifications fall into the grey area racial differences in hiring emerge (Pearson, et al., 2009).

And are correlated with Implicit Attitudes (Zeigart & Hanes, 2005).
Behavioral Confirmation
Consequences
Consequences not only for targets
So have we really changed?
Today...
Our K-12 schools are more segregated today than they were in 1968.
Residential segregation endures.
More likely to be victims of violence
Risky behavior
Have higher blood pressure
Frequent periods of increased heart rate
Heightened cortisol reactivity
Higher mortality rate
Even from diseases that have no cure
Yet, despite their higher likelihood of illness and mortality, minorities were found in a 1999 Institute of Medicine study to consistently getting lower-quality care even when factors such as insurance status and income weren't involved.

They were less likely to get lifesaving heart medications, bypass surgery, dialysis, or kidney transplants.

They were more likely to get their feet and legs amputated as a treatment for late-stage diabetes.

And follow-up experimental studies have confirmed differences in the treatment of patients based on race.
Stereotype Threat
Threats vs. challenges
Different physiological responses
Cortisol vs. DHEA-S
Tax on self-regulation
Racial health disparities cost the U.S. $229 billion between 2003 and 2006.
Unestimated costs re: racial disparities in the legal system
Recognition
vs. "Not a problem"
Caring
vs. "Not MY problem"
Confrontation
vs. "Nothing I can do"
& The Civil Rights Act of 1964
if you say I am you are overreacting
Full transcript