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Frozen Seas

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Penny Underwood

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Frozen Seas

Frozen Seas
Penny Underwood & Nick Morse & Kennedy Leistikow
What is a "Frozen Sea"?
Biodiversity of
Life Forms
Sea Spider
Over 1300 Species
Range in size from 1-10 millimeters
Can be found in the Pacific Ocean also
Marine arthropods
Believed to be anciently related to arachnids.
Live seawater temperatures between -2°c and 4°c
Lack red blood cells
Lacks a swim bladder
Instead of the normal 45% hemoglobin that the majority of animals have, Icefish only have 1%.
Basket Stars
Many branched arms used for catching and eating food
May live up to 35 years
Weighs around 11 lbs
Pycnogonida Pantopoda
Snowy Owl
Nyctea Scandica
Yellow eyes, black beak
Warm feathers help them keep warm in the arctic cold
Has a wingspan of 49-59 inches
Stays North of Alaska
Monadon monoceros
10-20 feet long
Weighs 1 ton or more
9 foot long ivory tusk
Discrostonyx Torquatus
4 3/4 inches long
Weights 15 ounces
Gulo Gulo
3-4 feet long
Weighs 30-40 lb
Always running
at top speed unless stopped
Wandering Albatross
Diomedea exulans
Likely to become endangered
Largest wingspan of any living bird. 2.51 - 3.5 meters.
Weighs from 5.9 to 12.7
Orca / Killer Whale
Orcinus orca
5-8 meters long
3-6+ tons
Distinctive patches of white
(Arctic & Antarctic)
Frozen seas are mostly covered by sheets of ice that varies in extent and thickness seasonally. The sea ice is affected by wind and ocean currents which can move and rotate very large areas of ice.
They made from salt water and ice. There is also debris carried by glaciers, such as sand, silt, clay, and boulders.
Environmental Issues & Concerns
Examples of Frozen Seas / Locations
Polar region located in the northernmost part of earth. The arctic ocean covers up to 14,056,000 km (5,427,000 sq miles) long. Temperature reaches up to 10-20°Celsius (50-68°Fahrenheit) The surface temperature reaches up to 22°Celsius and 72°Fahrenheit.
The region that is around the Earth's south pole. The temperature reaches -2 to 10°Celsius. It covers 4,000 to 5,000 miles. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is considered a desert.
The ice is melting and there is a seasonal hole in the ozone layer. Melting ice is leading to the scare of Global warming. Radioactivity contamination from Russian waste dump sites in the Kara sea are also concerns as they are affecting the Arctic Ocean.
Global warming is breaking up ice shelves, causing the loss of habitat for animals that are dependent on them. There is increasing sea levels in all regions of the world.
Ice Movement
The ice moves from the Siberian coast across the Arctic Basin. Then exits into the North Atlantic off the coast of Greenland.
Ice movement is largely based upon ocean currents surrounding Antarctica's frozen seas. Glaciers move randomly thus they are very unpredictable.
Water Movement
Cold, relatively fresh water comes into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean. Then the water can flow into the North Atlantic Ocean. Water from the North Atlantic ocean is warmer and saltier, and can also go into the Arctic Ocean.
Antarctic Circumpolar Current is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica. The current is circumpolar due to the lack of any landmass connecting with Antarctica and this keeps warm ocean waters away from Antarctica, enabling that continent to maintain its huge ice sheet.
Formation of Sea Ice
How much ice is there and how thick?
Ice covers as much as 44 degrees latitude and is up to 3 meters thick
Up to 13,200 feet thick.
The Antarctic Ice Cap contains about 85% of the world’s ice.
Icebergs are blocks of frozen freshwater that break off of glaciers and float out to sea. Glaciers are formed in the Polar region where snowfall lasts centuries and eventually compresses into ice. Scientists study them to learn more about climates and ocean processes. They pose danger to ships but help with aquatic animals around them.
Ice Shelves
Ice shelves are permanent
floating sheets of ice that
connect to a landmass. Ice
from large sheets slowly
ooze into the sea through glaciers and streams. If the ocean is cold enough, the shelf doesn't melt right away. Instead it may float on the surface and grow larger.
As ocean water freezes, small needle-like ice crystals called frazil form. Because salt doesn't freeze, the crystals expel salt into the water, and frazil consist of nearly pure fresh water. Sheets of sea ice form when frazil bond together at the surface.
If in calm waters, frazil form a smooth, thin form of ice called nilas. If in rough waters, frazil form into slushy circular disks, called pancake ice. Eventually pancake ice cement together and become one ice sheet.
Once sea ice forms into sheet ice, it grows through the winter. During the summer, if it is not thick enough, it will melt. If it thins but does not completely melt it is called multiyear ice.
Land mammals have thick fur with hollow shafts that trap warm air close to the body. Some have an additional layer of fur that protects it from wind and water. Most are large, rounded animals with relatively short arms and legs to minimize heat loss. They remain active throughout the winter to keep their blood pumping. Fur isn’t as good for keeping warm underwater, therefore, most animals also have a thick layer of blubber, which keeps them warm in the water. Blubber is a thick layer of tissue and stores most fats.

Many small mammals hibernate during the winter. Hibernation means they rest- almost like sleeping-without eating, drinking or even waking up. Their body temperature drops and they live off of stored fat.

To keep warm, birds have water-repellent outer feathers in addition to inner feathers. They even grow feathers on the soles of their feet to keep their feet warm and to prevent them from sinking in the snow.

Some fish have a protein in their blood that acts like antifreeze in a car. It binds to ice crystals, isolating them from each other so they can’t grow.
How animals adapt to the environment
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