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ADHD

Group Four
by

beza feria

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of ADHD

Behaviors & Symptoms Of ADD /ADHD Treatments Reasons for addressing ADHD Cognitive Developmental Disorder
Focusing on ( ADHD) ADHD in children
age 6-12 ADHD Treatments
Stimulant Medications

•Methylphendidate (Concerta, Metadate, Ritalin)
•Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
•Dextroamphetamine (Amphetamine, Adderall, Adderall XR)
•Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)

There’s also alternative medication for people who can’t use stimulants due to heart problems.
The alternative treatments include Atomoxetine and Antidepressants as they work slower than stimulants, the only downfall I saw to these is that they may take several weeks to see the full effects.
•Atomoxetine (Strattera) this one works for most children and adults

Antidepressants
-Bupropion (Wellburtin) Children 1-17
-Guanfacine (Intuniu, Tenex) Children 1-17 Videos on ADHD What is ADHD? Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD. ADHD is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and persits into adulthood. The core symptoms of ADHD are inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. If these problems persist, they will cause difficulties in one or more major areas of the person's life such as: home, school, work, and social relationships. Though there isn't cure, treatment and medication are available which can help a great deal with the symptoms and in turn make a big difference in the outcome. THE END ADHD is a brain condition also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD makes it especially hard for children to focus and concentrate in school and in their daily activities. There are multiple symptoms and types of behaviors associated with ADHD in children. ADHD is often misunderstood and over looked by parents, teachers and students. The Centers for Disease Control, has indicated that “about 9.5% or 5.4 million children 4-17 years of age, had been diagnosed with ADHD, as of 2007." ADHD is a disorder that affects millions and needs to be addressed in order to help diagnose. The primary characteristics of ADD / ADHD

When many people think of attention deficit disorder, they picture an out-of-control kid in constant motion, bouncing off the walls and disrupting everyone around. But this is not the only possible picture.

Some children with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive, while others sit quietly—with their attention miles away. Some put too much focus on a task and have trouble shifting it to something else. Others are only mildly inattentive, but overly impulsive. Causes Behaviors & Symptoms Of ADD / ADHD Continued! Deciding if a child has ADHD is a several-step process. There is no single test to diagnose ADHD, and many other problems, like anxiety, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities, can have similar symptoms.

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) is used by mental health professionals to help diagnose ADHD. This diagnostic standard helps ensure that people are appropriately diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Using the same standard across communities will help determine the prevalence and public health impact of ADHD. Behavior Therapy and Counseling
Behavior Therapy - Teachers and parents can learn behavior - changing strategies for dealing with difficult situations. These strategies may include token reward systems and timeouts.
Psycholotherapy- This allows older children with ADHD to talk about issues that bother them, explore negative behavioral patterns and learn ways to deal with their symptoms.
Parenting Skills Training - This can help parents develop ways to understand and guide their child's behavior.
Family Therapy - Family therapy can help parents and siblings deal with the stress of living with someone who has ADHD.
Social Skills Training - This can help children learn appropriate social behaviors. Alternative Treatments Brain Structure
Research using advanced imaging techniques shows there is a difference in the size of certain parts of the brain in children with ADHD compared to children who do not have ADHD. The areas showing change include the prefrontal cortex, the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus, and the cerebellum.
Brain Chemicals
Abnormal activity of certain brain chemicals in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to ADHD. The chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine are of special interest. They affect both mental and emotional functioning, and also play a role in the "reward response." Studies suggest that increased levels of the brain chemicals glutamate, glutamine, and GABA -- collectively called Glx -- interact with the pathways that transport dopamine and norepinephrine.
Nerve Pathways
Another area of interest is a network of nerves called the basal-ganglia thalamocortical pathways. Abnormalities along this neural route have been associated with other disorders that share the same symptoms.
Genetic Factors
Genetic factors may play the most important role in ADHD. Relatives of ADHD children have much higher rates of ADHD, antisocial, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders than the families of non-ADHD children. 90% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD shared it with their twin.
Most of the research on the underlying genetic mechanisms targets the neurotransmitter dopamine. Variations in genes that regulate specific dopamine receptors have been identified in a high proportion of people with addictions and ADHD but it is still inconclusive.
Teratogens
Maternal smoking
Fetal exposure to drugs and alcohol

Nutrition
consumption of high sugar intake and food additives may play a factor in ADHD.
Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and an increase in activity.11 Research is under way to confirm the findings and to learn more about how food additives may affect hyperactivity. Causes cont. Medication Outcome Children & ADHD Jared Jared Beza Visual Aid It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. However, children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviors. The symptoms continue and can cause difficulty at school, at home, or with friends.

A child with ADHD might:

In a classroom of children
•have a hard time paying attention
•daydream a lot
•not seem to listen
•be easily distracted from schoolwork or play
•forget things
•be in constant motion or unable to stay seated
•squirm or fidget
•talk too much
•not be able to play quietly
•act and speak without thinking
•have trouble taking turns
•interrupt others Beza Manuel Victor & Anto Victor Over view Of ADHD QUIZ Medication Therapy Bonus Questions

1. Could kids with ADD/ADHD behave better if they wanted to?

2. Is Medication is the best treatment option for ADD/ADHD?

Medication therapy is an important component of treating ADHD. There are many types of drugs that can be used to control symptoms of ADHD. A class of drugs called psychostimulants or stimulants have been used to effectively treat ADHD for several decades. These medicines help those with ADHD to focus their thoughts and ignore distractions. Stimulant medications are effective in 70% to 80% of patients. A list of stimulant drugs to treat ADHD includes Adderall, Concerta, Dexedrine, Focalin, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin,Vyvanse,Daytrana, Quillivant XR. Only some of these stimulants, like Adderall XR, Concerta, Vyvanse, Quillivant XR, and Focalin XR, are FDA-approved for use in adults.
In cases where stimulants don’t work or cause unpleasant side effects, nonstimulants might help. The first nonstimulant medication approved by the FDA was Strattera. It's now used in children, adolescents, and adults. The FDA then approved a second nonstimulant drug, Intuniv, for children and teens between ages 6 and 17 and recently approved the non-stimulant Kapvay for use alone or in combination with a stimulant to enhance effectiveness. These medications can all improve concentration and impulse control.

Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD sometimes have side effects, but these tend to happen early in treatment and are usually mild and short-lived. The most common side effects of stimulants include: Decreased appetite/weight loss, Sleep problems, Headaches, Jitteriness. Research has also looked at the long-term side effects of ADHD medications. A 2007 review examined the evidence and found possible links to appetite and growth, both height and weight. Loss of appetite has been reported in up to 60 percent of children on stimulant drugs. Rarely, some stimulants are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular problem. They may also exacerbate psychiatric conditions like depression, psychosis, or anxiety. Anto http://www.medicinenet.com/adhd_quiz/quiz.htm Manuel Work cited http://www.m.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/video/adhd-in-children
"Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (2010): n. page. Web. 6 May. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html>.

 Source: http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/who_has_attention-deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_000030_2.htm#ixzz2RCL8fIBH
 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/how-schools-even-great-ones-fail-kids-with-adhd/2012/09/23/8e81c83c-f828-11e1-8253-3f495ae70650_blog.html

 MedicineNet: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
http://www.medicinenet.com/attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_adhd/article.htm

 WebMD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosing ADHD
http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/diagnosing-adhd

 MedicineNet: ADHD Glossary of Terms
 http://www.medicinenet.com/attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_adhd/glossary.htm

 WebMD: ADHD Guide: Home Remedies
 http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-home-remedies

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/30/adhd-brain_n_1175627.html
 "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Thomas E. Brown, PhD, assistant clinical professor, psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine; associate director, Yale Clinic for Attention and Related Disorders. Edward Gotlieb, MD, FAAP, FASM, pediatrician. Chris A. Zeigler Dendy, MS, mental health counselor; former teacher and school psychologist.

Books:
dore, wynford. dyslexia and adhd . 1. London: john blake publishing Ltd., 2008. 1-151. Print. By :Beza Metaferia, Jared Raye, Manuel Martinez, Victor Rodriguez, Anto Joseph, Isaias Vasquez Isaias
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