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Denim was used as a material in Europe for much longer than many would anticipate
Two Americans helped coin the term 'Blue Jeans' History Of Denim & Jeans Cont. Visuals depicting denim in the 19th century Jeans, like Denim, originated in Europe
Traces back to France / Italy
Jeans became globalized due to European sailors Although Colonialism did affect the evolution of Jeans, war seemed to be more of a defining factor in their initial expansion. In the US, Jeans began as a sturdy trousers worn by factory workers. During World War II production of Jeans diminished, but waist overalls became increasingly popular amongst soldiers as an item of clothing that could be worn off duty. In the 1950’s Jeans were banned in some theaters, restaurants, and schools due to their status a symbol of youthful rebellion, which many attribute to the movie Rebel Without a Cause by James Dean. Jeans became socially acceptable again in the 1960’s, and by the 1970’s had become a fashion staple in the United States. In modern society globalization plays a massive role in the production and distribution of Jeans. Over 50% of Denim is produced in Asia, namely in China, India and Bangladesh. In 2007 the Denim market was equivalent to 51.6 billion USD, with global demand only increasing. While these figures are encouraging for the Denim market, the number of Denim Mills is disproportionately skewed towards South Asia, with China containing 297 of the worlds 513 Denim Mills (33 times as many Mills as North America).
Top producers of denim are: Italy, China and Turkey
The average wage of a Chinese factory worker is $0.44 an hour Some of the largest USA based consumers are Levi Strauss, VF Corporation, WalMart, Gap, and JC Penny
Resources used in making denim:
Cotton fabrics and threads, polyester, synthetic indigo dyes, copper rivets, steel zippers, snaps, and buttons, and cloth, leather or plastic labels Who Manufactures Denim? How Denim Is Made? Cotton
Cotton is typically harvested every three months
100 pounds of cotton are produced every 24 hours
$300/ton of cotton
a single bale of cotton can make approximately 325 pairs of jeans Process of Production The process begins with Cotton Fibers being formed into yarn through centrifugal action in Open- End Spinning. Individual fibers are then laid down in the groove of a fast spinning rotor and twisted into yarn. After the cotton fibers are spun into yarn, the yarn is wound into a large package.
Individual strands of yarn are removed from yarn packages prior to being gathered into a rope form suitable for dyeing. Individual strands of warp yarn (the length-wise yarn in a fabric) are gathered into rope form and wound onto a log
The yarn goes through scour/sulfur dye, wash boxes, indigo dye vats, over a skying device (to allow oxidation to occur), through additional wash boxes, over drying cans and is eventually coiled into tubes
A starch/wax solution is also applied to the yarn to help it withstand the abrasion and tension it will be exposed to in Weaving.
The weaving process interlaces the warp (length-wise indigo dyed yarn) and the filling (natural-colored cross-wise yarn) producing 100 percent cotton denim in a variety of weights and styles. Process Of Production cont. After the Fabric is produced, it is shipped to sewing factories where it is cut and sewn together to make jeans.
Sewing is done in an assembly line fashion, with rows of industrial human-operated sewing machines. Each sewer is assigned a specific function (e.g making back pant pockets)
Jeans are then shipped to Laundries for washing. They are prewashed and/or stone-washed to alter their appearance and texture. Prewashing involves washing the jeans in industrial detergent for a short time to soften the denim. Stone-washing also means washing the jeans, but pumice is added to the load, resulting in a faded appearance.
Jeans are then ironed in a pressing machine and then sent to warehouses for storage until they are selected to be sent to a store The Consequences Of Denim More then twenty thousand cotton workers fall victim to chemical poisoning each year.
Hazards such as byssinosis (brown lung) caused by inhaling cotton dust (cotton dust often contains pesticides, fungi, bacteria, and soil) causes chest pain, shortness of breath, and severe respiratory problems.
Cotton field workers-- often paid for what they pick individually, tie burlap sacks between their legs to collect cotton
The Cotton bolls picked are itchy and suck moisture from the skin, leaving the hands of many factory workers numb.
workers are stooped and aged, missing many teeth, very thin, work hard and die young
age ranges from 15-45, often look many years older Factory Conditions 12-14 hour shifts
Not paid for overtime
Poor working conditions Is Denim Necessary? When asking if Denim is necessary, two different aspects of 'necessity' should be evaluated
1. Cultural necessity
2. Economic necessity Is Denim Necessary? Cont. Denim has resisted economic recession
Impact of the Denim cycle must be taken into consideration when evaluating material
Many pollutants are released during the denim cycle into various third world countires Changing what denim is made of Natural Dyeing Centralizing Production Up cycling/Reuse/Recycle Life Cycle of a
Pair of Jeans Organic Cotton Farming Cotton Alternatives New ways of Garment Finishing Indigo Pollution in China - massive algae bloom
- became a dumping ground for debris
- agricultural runoffs
- poisoning China's water supply
- discharged dyes contains heavy metals which cause cancer of different organs
- poisons the ecosystem
- the villages along the river rely on fishing Creating Sustainable Denim Levi's goes green with the Waste<Less denim collection Levi's goes green with the Waste<Less denim collection - making jeans out of garbage
- composed of at least 20% recycled plastic
- joined the Better Cotton Initiative in Pakistan, India, Brazil, and Mali to teach farmers how to grow cotton with less water
- changed the care tag
- held an online contest for consumers to suggest their own air-drying ideas
- recommending consumers to donate old jeans
- finding alternatives to produce distressed jean Recycled Denim for Building Structure Obstacles in Transforming Denim 1. Pricing
16in. x 48in. recycled denim roll is $6.00
15in. x 48in normal insulation roll is $1.25 2. cultural obstacles
- the idea of
"faster and higher"
fast changing society,
- Chinese New Year,
it is a tradition to new things,
representing a new start and
also throwing away the
"bad luck" of old things What does washing jeans do? Bibliography "Denim Manufacturing Process | Plains Cotton Cooperative Association." Plains Cotton Cooperative Association. Plains Cotton Cooperative Association, 2013. Web. 12 May 2013.
Secrest, Rose. "How Products Are Made." How Blue Jeans Are Made. How Products Are Made, 2013. Web. 12 May 2013.
Snyder, Rachel Louise. Fugitive Denim: A Moving Story of People and Pants in the Borderless World of Global Trade. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2008. Print.
"History Of Denim". Jeanswest. 2013. Web. 7 May 2013
Wang, Lisa. "Premium Denim's Tentative Comeback." 2013. Web. 9 May 2013.
O'Connell, Sanjida. "Harming The Environment: Jean Greenie." The Independent. 2011. Web. 12 May 2013.
Berfield, Susan. Levi's Goes Green With Waste<Less Jeans. Bloomberg, 18 October 2012.
Chang, Emily. China's famed Pearl River under denim threat. CNN World, 27 April 2010.
Warren, Cory. We're Surrounded. (And it's a good thing.). Levi Strauss & Co., 16 September 2010.
Industry of All Nations. "Industry of All Nations Jeans." Industry of All Nations Jeans. N.p., 2012. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.industryofallnations.com/Jeans-At-Industry-Of-All-Nations-ccid_80.aspx>.
Levi Strauss & Co. A Product Lifestyle Approach to Sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment. N.p., Mar. 2009. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.levistrauss.com/sites/default/files/librarydocument/2010/4/Product_Lifecyle_Assessment.pdf>.
ADEME. An Environmental Product Declaration of Jeans. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF.
Lenzing Group. "TENCEL® for More Eco in Denim." Lenzing. N.p., 2013. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.lenzing.com/en/fibers/tencel/applications/apparel/botanic-denim.html>.
Stylesight. "Denim Interview: Adriano Goldschmied." Stylesight. N.p., 3 Aug. 2011. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://blog.stylesight.com/denim/denim-interview-adriano-goldschmied>. Non GM Plants
No synthetic pesticides, approved fertilizer
Improve living conditions of farmers because of lack of chemicals and better income Have denim made of other materials besides cotton
Use recycled materials
Add synthetic materials so that denim is not just cotton Celebrity Power - Cotton production consumes nearly a quarter of the world's insecticides and 10% of the world's pesticides
- The average pair of jeans has been introduced to three quarters of a pound of chemicals
- In California, cotton is the third highest crop responsible for agricultural workers' illnesses
- Linked to cancer, fertility problems, and neurological disorders in developing brains but were still given the green light (ie Malathion)
-Methyl parathion is also a common pesticide, listed as extremely hazardous, banned by 19 countries (not including United States and China) Pollution from Insecticides Upcycling/Reuse/Recycle Organic Cotton Farming Cotton Alternatives