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The Two Golden Ages of China 12.1
Transcript of The Two Golden Ages of China 12.1
-Ruler during Tang and Song Dynasties
-Restored unity in China After Han Dynasty collapsed, China was divided for 400 years. Li Yuan was the first Tang emperor.
(Previously a Sui Dynasty general) -Son, Li Shimin, encouraged Li Yuan to lead a revolt and they crushed all enemies and founded Tang Dynasty Li Shimin changed name to Tang Taizong when he took the throne.
He became China's most admired emperor Tang Rulers forced Vietnam, Korea, and Tibet to become *Tributary States*
-states remained self-governing but had to acknoledge Chinese supremacy and send tribute to the Tang emperor Tang emporers instituted a system of *land reform* which strengthened the government.
-broke up large agricultural holdings and redistributed the land to peasants Tangs lost territories in Centeral Asia and corrupition and rebelion led to the decline of the Tang Dynasty.
Rebel General finally overthrew the last Tang emperor. The Song Dynasty Zhao Kuangyin Zhao reunited much of China and founded the Song Dynasty which ruled for 319 years. In the late 1200's invaders from the North (Mongols) attacked and overthrew the Song. Despite military setbacks the Song Dynasty was a time of great achievement. China's wealth and culture dominated East Asia even when it armies did not. The rise in productivity created surpluses, allowing more people to pursue commerce, learning, or the arts. A system of canals had been built that encouraged international trade and transportation. The Grand Canal linked the Huang River and the Chang River. Technology of Tang and Song China Gunpowder was invented in the 850's The canons in the video clip from Mulan were used from a mixture of saltperer, sulfur, and charcoal. In the 700's the mechanical water-powered clocks were invented. In the 700's block printing was invented. Chinese people carved charecters into a block of wood. China's Ordered Society
In early Song and Tang Dynasty, women had a lower status then men. Families valued boys more than girls because when girls married they became apart of the husbands family.
The women couldn't keep their *dowry* and could nevery remarry
-the payment a woman made to marry *Caution this may be a little disturbing to some viewers* http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-gyzAqu0VAg In the late Song times the custom of foot binding evolved.
As a young girl, you would have your feet bound together with long strips of cloth. n The Tang and Song Develop a Rich Culture The main reason for their rich culture was their prosperous economy. Artists strived to paint balence and harmony
-During the Song period the Chinese painted landscapes.
-Like in the Daoist tradition painters wanted to capture the spiritual essence of the natural world.
-However, Chinese also painted lively scenes of city life. The architecture was influenced by Buddhist themes
-The traditional Indian stupa changed into the Chinese *Pagoda* which was a multistoried temple with eaves that curved up at the corners
-This had such a strong influence on the people that now people picture Budda as a Chinese god rather than and Indian holy man Chinese perfected techniques in making porcelain:
-Made decorative vases, tea services, figures and other objects later known as "chinaware" Chinese scholars produced works on philosophy, religion, and history; while short stories mixed fantasy, romance, and adventure. -Poetry was the most respected form of literature.
-Confucian scholars were expected to master the skills of poetry
-Chinese poetry touched on Buddhist and Daoist themes, as well as social issues. They also reflected on the shortness of life and immensity of the universe. The Greatest Tang Poet was Li Bo
-He wrote some 2,000 poems celebrating harmony with nature or lamenting the passage of time.
-He most likely drowned when he attempted to embrace the reflection of the moon in a lake. -Li Bo's friend Du Fu wrote more realistic poems about war
-Li Qingzhao wrote poems about the experience of women left behind when loved ones went off to war. The End