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Novel trends in nanomaterials for biomedical applications

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by

Janez Valant

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Novel trends in nanomaterials for biomedical applications

Biomedical applications of nanoparticles
Conclusions and future outlook
Nanomedicine is a filed of tremendous prospects
Nanoparticles can improve disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment
Multifunctional therapeutic materials.



Toxicological properties of new nanomaterials?
Cost of production and purification of nanoparticles?
Novel trends in biomedical
applications of nanomaterials

Janez Valant, Ph.D.
Nanomaterials
Nano= "Dwarf" in Greek
Definitions
Nanomaterials: at least one dimension less than 100 nm (thin films, layers, surfaces)


Nanowires and nanotubes: nanoscale in two dimensions


Nanoparticles: nanoscale in three dimensions
Novel properties of nanomaterials- surface area
Nanomaterials in biomedicine
Stability

Carrier capacity

Hydrophobic/hydrophilic substances

Administration routes (oral, inhalation)

Sustained drug release
Advantages
In vivo behavior

Fate after the release of drugs

Degradation/metabolization

Excretion

Toxicity?
Questions to be addressed
Size distribution
(Surface chemistry, charge,
agglomeration status)
Shape
Dissolution
Chemical composition
Hydrophobic/hydrophilic
Crystal structure
Increasing electrostatic repulsive forces
Zeta potential
pH
Increasing thickness of
charged double layer

Ionic strength
Pretreatment
Biomedical
applications

Drug delivery
Thermal therapy
Antibacterial
action

Biosensors
Imaging
(Diagnostic magnetic resonance)
Nanoparticles applied
in biomedicine

Metallic
Carbon based
Quantum dots
Silver
Gold

Efficiency!
Cell membrane permeabilization
Disruption of cell organelles
Bactericidal properties depend on stability in medium
Dissolution!
Ag nanoparticles
Antimicrobal properties
Different shape, size and surface modification
Bio-imaging
Surface raman spectroscopy (SERS)
(biomolecule detection)
Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF)
Therapeutics
Biocide (infections in burns)
Surface coatings for implanted medical devices
Controlling inflammation responses (burn injury)
Antiplatelet/antithrombotic agent
Au nanoparticles
Different shape, size and surface modification
Bio-imaging
Contrast agent
Cell imaging
(dark field light SPR scattering,
near - infrared absorbing)
Contrast enhancer (TEM)
Raman signal enhancer
Therapeutics
Delivery of molecules in cells
Cancer treatments (photothermal therapy)
Diagnosis
Detection of nucleid acids and proteins in biological samples
Magnetic
Magnetic nanoparticles-General properties
Transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co)
Metal oxides (Fe3O4, Fe2O3)
Highly saturated magnetization
Less than 15 nm (superparamagnetic)
Surface modifications (PEG, PVA)- avoiding agglomeration
Applications
Drug delivery
Surface functionalization
Drug loading
Direction with external magnetic field
Hyperthermia
Sensitivity of tumor cells
Heating with alternating magnetic field
Noninvasive way to raise temperature
Visualization using MRI
Surface functionalization (chemoterapeutics)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Organ/tissue imaging (lymph node, atherosclerotic plaques, macrophage infiltration)
Cell labeling and imaging
Miscelaneous applications
Cell separations
Separation of biochemicals
Magnetofection (Gene Delivery)
Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes,
graphene
Water dispersable
Biosensors
Nanoelectrodes: detection of glucose, proteins, neurotransmitters and DNA
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)- DNA-DNA hybridization and tumor markers.
Bio-imaging
Raman scattering, high optical absorption, and photoluminescence in the NIR range
Therapeutics
Drug delivery
Covalent binding or noncovalent
adsorption of drugs
Antibody conjugation enables targeted delivery
Apropriate for hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs
SWNTs and GO are good photothermal therapeutic agents
QD
Nanocrystal made of semiconductor materials
Imaging
Novel class of fluorophores
High quantum yield
Wide excitation spectra
Narrow, tuneable and symmetrical emission spectra
Ease of bioconjugation
Application: immunohistochemistry, fluoroimmunoassays (detection of proteins), flow cytometry, live animal imaging
Photodynamic therapy
Induction of apoptosis or necrosis in tumor cells
QDs also produce reactive oxygen intermediates and reactive nitrogen species upon photoactivation
DNA breakage, lysosomal and mitochondrial damage
Full transcript