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1st Semester Project - Absolutism
Transcript of 1st Semester Project - Absolutism
1643-1715 When his father, Louis XIII, died in 1643, he was only 5 years old, becoming king at a young age
His mother, Anne of Austria, annulled his father's will, which made her the sole regent
His mother chose her chief minister, Cardinal Jules Mazarin, to assist her Cardinal Mazarin Pre-Romanov Russia Controlled by the Mongols
Isolated from the rest of Europe Time of Troubles Started after Ivan IV dies
Ivan's family, the Streltsy (the military) and the Boyars (the nobles) fight for power
Lasted for 70 years
Ended when Michael Romanov took power and formed the Romanov Dynasty Notable Rulers:
- Known as Moneybags
- Paid by Mongols to stop uprisings
- Known as The Great
- Controlled all of Russia
- Known as The Terrible
- Absolute ruler
- Subdued the nobility
- Had a secret police Continued Richelieu's policy of centralization
Long-building resentment produced a backlash
- The Fronde Rebellion (1648-1653)
- Named after the slingshot used by street boys
- Some of the nobility and townspeople wanted
to preserve the local autonomy and reverse
the drift toward absolute monarchy The Fronde Rebellion In 1648, the Parlement of Paris started the revolt and the nobility soon joined the cause
They were influenced by the wives of princes that had been imprisoned by Mazarin for treason
The nobility had a brief victory when Mazarin released the imprisoned princes
The royal family was then forced to flee Paris
In 1652, they returned after an interlude of inefficient and nearly archaic rule by the nobility
Mazarin suppressed the revolt in 1653 and by decade’s end had restored internal order and negotiated a peace treaty with Hapsburg Spain, making France a leading European power
This would cause Louis XIV to have a lifelong fear of rebellion Personal Rule Assumed personal control of the government
- No chief minister was appointed
- Made revolt more difficult
- Rebellious nobles would now be challenging the
king directly, they couldn't claim to be resisting
a bad minister anymore
Strategies used to prevent a repeat of the Fronde
- Louis and his advisors became masters of
propaganda and the creation of a political image
- Louis never missed an opportunity to impress
the grandeur of the crown on the French people
- He made sure that the French nobles and other
major social groups would benefit from the
growth of his authority
- Louis never tried to abolish the noble
institutions or limit their authority at the local level Versailles Louis's permanent home after 1682
Architecturally designed and artistically
decorated to proclaim the glory of the Sun King
Over 50% annual revenue spent on court life
Debt for Louis's successors
Kept the nobles from revolting:
- Barred by law from high government positions, the
ritual and play kept them busy and dependent. Dress
codes and high-stakes gambling contributed to their
indebtedness and dependency on the King
Louis often strolled the grounds of Versailles, giving
the nobles a chance to speak personally to the King
Court life was organized around every aspect of the
King's daily routine Louis XIV's Legacy Mixed Legacy
Wars left death, destruction and debt
- Louis to heir: "Do not imitate my love for buildings
His reign began a new French empire
- Expanded trade into Asia, colonized North America
Louis as an "absolute" ruler
- Ruled over the areas of state action
- Wars and peace
- Regulation of religion
- The nobility and townspeople still controlled the
local politics, but they didn't have a voice and at
the national level Economic Development Developed iron industry
Recruited tradesmen from Western Europe to teach the Russians their trades
Access to warm-water ports allowed Russia to trade with the rest of Europe Military Development King by Divine Right It was a maxim of French law and popular opinion that "the king of France is emperor in his realm"
To defend the "divine right of kings", his tutor, Bishop Bossuet, cited examples of Old Testament rulers divinely appointed by, and answerable only to, God
As medieval popes had insisted that only God could judge a pope, so Bossuet argued that none save God could judge the king
As God's regents on Earth, a king could not be bound to the dictates of mere princes and parliaments
"L'état, c'est moi" : I am the state St. Petersburg Founded in 1703 on the Gulf of Finland
It was built with western European architecture
The capital was moved to St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg was symbolic of Russia's new western outlook The War of Devolution 1667-1668 According to the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, Marie had renounced her claim to the Spanish succession on condition that a 500,000-crown dowry be paid to Louis within eighteen months of the marriage --- Louis didn't get paid
When Philip IV of Spain died, he left his lands to a son from a second marriage and denied lands to his daughter
Louis argued that in certain regions of Brabant and Flanders, property "devolved" to the children of the first marriage and not to those of a second marriage
Louis eventually agreed to the terms in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and gained control of certain towns bordering the Spanish Netherlands Revocation
Edict of Nantes Protestant churches and schools were closed
Protestant ministers were exiled
Nonconverting laity were forced to be galley slaves
Protestant children were ceremonially baptized by Catholic priests
As a result, Louis was viewed in Protestant countries as a new Philip II
It prompted the voluntary emigration of more than a quarter million French people
To his death, Louis considered the revocation to be his most pious act, one that placed God in his debt The League of Augsburg
The Nine Years' War The League of Augsburg, created in 1686 to resist French expansion into Germany, had grown by 1689 to include England, Spain, Sweden, the United Provinces, and the electorates of Bavaria, Saxony and the Palatinate. It had the support of the Austrian emperor Leopold.
The Nine Years' War was a battle between the league and France from 1689-1697. It ended when stalemate and exhaustion forced both sides to accept an interim settlement. War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714 James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots
Came to power after Elizabeth's death.
- Generated a large royal debt
- Divided church
- Believed in divine right of kings.
Unpopular foreign policy
- Made peace with Spain
- Did not send troops for 30 yrs war
- Son married to a catholic For the first time, France went to war with inadequate finances, a poorly equipped army, and mediocre military leadership.
Though ready to make peace in 1709, Louis couldn't bring himself to accept the stiff terms of the Grand Alliance --- made up of England, Holland, and HRE
Terms included a demand that all Spanish possessions be transfered to the emperor's grandson Charles and remove Philip V from Madrid.
France finally signed an armistice with England at Utrecht in 1713 and concluded hostilities with Holland and the emperor in the Treaty of Rasdat in 1714. This treaty confirmed Philip V as king of Spain, gave Gibraltar and the island of Minona to England, and won Louis's recognition of the right of the House of Hanover to accede to the English throne. Charles I King Jame's successor, struggled with the same problems James had.
Parliament cuts off funds, forces Charles to recognize the petition of the rights
Forced loans or taxes prohibited.
Charles agreed, but dissolved parliament a year later. Long Parliament Fed up with insubordination, Charles and an armed force stormed parliament
In response, Parliament raised it's own army
A second civil war begins. Civil War Cavaliers- Kings forces
Roundheads- Parliamentary forces
Parliament led by Cromwell, New Model Army wins the civil war.
Charles executed as a public criminal in 1649.
Oliver Cromwell went on to rule as a military dictator. Cromwell Leadership no more effective than the monarchs
Became a 'puritan republic'
- No theaters, dancing, drinking
- Religious conformity.
By the time he died, England was
ready to return the monarchy and
Religious freedom at the expense of political freedom Charles II Crowned king after Cromwell was removed
Secretly had catholic sympathies
- Anyone could worship freely as long as they
remained loyal to the throne.
Signed the treaty of Dover with France.
- Charles would announce his conversion to
Catholicism when conditions permitted
- In return, Louis XIV promised to pay a subsidy to
England, then go to war against the Dutch Test Act Required all officials to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation
- Can't be Roman Catholic in Government
Aimed at the Duke of York, who was the heir to the throne.
- Recently converted to Catholicism. The Popish Plot Charles' Catholic wife consipiring with others to kill Charles in order to have James crowned king
Charles suppressed opposition, ask for extra income from Louis. Glorious Revolution James II William of Orange was invited to invade England
- No resistance against his march into London.
William and Mary became the new monarchs
Limited powers of monarchy, guaranteed the civil liberties of the English privileged classes.
- Monarchs had to follow the same laws and ruled by the consent of Parliament.
- Roman Catholics couldn't occupy throne. Catholic, but removed all religious tests.
- Permitted free worship
Parliament sought out new monarchs at this point, looked elsewhere outside of England. Came to power in 1682
His sister, Sophia, ruled as regent
He overthrew her in 1689
He traveled abroad in Europe to achieve this
Tamed the Boyars and Streltsy
Brought the Russian Church under secular control
He left no clear heir when he died Built a navy for Russia
Drafted 300,000 soldiers into the army
Took ports on the Baltic Sea in the Great Northern War
The College of War was founded in 1718 to manage the army's administrative needs