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The Effect of Birth Order on Moral Development

Senior Research Project

Oduwa Odaro

on 5 April 2013

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Transcript of The Effect of Birth Order on Moral Development

Methods and Materials Kohlberg Test on highschool students
about 210 students
Heinz Dilema
Sorted; extraneous, disregarded
Graded according to Kohlberg Levels
ANOVA Test The Effect of Birth Order on Moral Development BACKGROUND INFORMATION Birth order (n): One's rank, by age amongst their siblings
Lasting effects
Controversial in pop psychology PROMINENT PEOPLE Alfred Adler Frank J. Sulloway THEORIES and MODELS Confluence Model Zanjonc et.al. Isolated adult presence/ IQ level Alder Theory Alfred Alder Indelible Impressions
First borns
Middle borns
Last borns Sulloway Theory Frank Sulloway STUDIES ON BIRTH ORDER Saraoglou, et. al. (2002) Birth Order, Personality, and Religon: A Study Among Young Adults from a Three-Sibling Home Paulhus, et. al. (1999) Birth Order's Effects on Personality and Achievement in Families Moral Development (n): the emergence, change and understanding of morality in a person from infancy to adulthood Sigmund Freud Individual needs< Society's needs
Socializing agents Jean Piaget Action/ interaction leads to moral development
Heteronomous (egocentric) evolves to autonomous (prospective) Lawrence Kohlberg 6 Levels of Moral Development Group 1: Pre-Conventional 1. Obedience
2. Self Interest Group 2: Conventional 3. Conformity
4. Law and Order Grouo 3: Post-Conventional 5. Human Rights
6. Universal Ethics Methods and Materials Kohlberg test (see appendix 1)
Heinz Dilemma
210 college students
Completely silent
Extraneous tests, disregarded
Graded according to Kohlberg's 6 levels of moral development
ANOVA test HYPOTHESIS: Later borns are more likely to have lower levels of moral development due to their immature socio-cognitive development relative to their older siblings. RESULTS P-Value: 0.815 Average: 4.04
Standard deviation: 0.852 Last Borns: Average: 3.93
Standard deviation: 0.837 Middle Borns: Average: 4.00
Standard deviation: 0.798 First Borns: ANOVA Results DISCUSSION No significant relationship; null hypothesis is supported Age as a factor in moral development ANOVA Results First borns: Middle borns: Last borns: Average: 4.06
Standard deviation: 0.762 Average: 4.08
Standard deviation: 0.792 Average: 4.03
Standard deviation: 0.731 P-value: 0.930 IMPROVEMENTS:
College students
Specific grading guidelines
Fewer questions on tests FUTURE EXPERIMENTS
The Effect of Childhood Environments on Moral Development
The Effect of Birth Order on Logical Reasoning
Correlation Between Ethnicity and Moral Development Works Cited 1. Michalski, R. Shackleford, Todd. (2002) An attempted replication of the relationships between birth order and personality. Journal of Research in Personality. 36(2). 182-188 <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656601923505>
2. Shooler, Carmi. (1972) Birth order effects: not here, not now. Psychological Bulletin. 73(3). 161-175. <http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/78/3/161/>
3. Zajonc, Robert B.;Markus, Hazel;Markus, Gregory B. (1979). The birth order puzzle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 37(8), 1325-1341. <http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1980-32403-001>
4. Paulhus, D. Trapnell, P. Chen, D. (2011) Birth order effects on personality and achievement within families. The journal of the association for psychological science. 10(6) 482-488 <http://paultrapnell.com/reprints/birthorder_psysci99.pdf>
5. Saroglou, V. Fiasse, L. (2003). Birth order, personality, and religion: a study among young adults from a three-sibling family. Personality and Individual Differences. 35(1). 19-29 < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188690200137X>
6. Frank J. Sulloway, "Birth Order, Sibling Competition, and Human Behavior." In Conceptual Challenges in Evolutionary Psychology: Innovative Research Strategies, edited by Harmon R. Holcomb (Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001), pp. 39-83. < http://www.sulloway.org/pubs.html>
7. Adler, A. (1964). Problems of Neurosis. New York: Harper and Row.
8. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_order#Theories>
9. Townsend, F. (2000) Birth order and rebelliousness: reconstructing the research in born to rebel. Association for Politics and Life Sciences. 19(2). 135-156 < http://politicsandthelifesciences.org/Contents/Contents-2000-9/PLS2000-9-135.pdf>
10. Harris, Judith Rich (2006), No Two Alike: Human Nature and Human Individuality (pp. 107-112) < http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hq48ncKLcG0C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Harris,+Judith+Rich+No+Two+Alike:+Human+Nature+and+Human+Individuality&ots=tIG_GvdopO&sig=SXlzrLDBfMLs8F0T2EwXs3mG_us#v=onepage&q=Harris%2C%20Judith%20Rich%20No%20Two%20Alike%3A%20Human%20Nature%20and%20Human%20Individuality&f=false>
11. Lamb, M. E., Sutton-Smith, B. (1982).Sibling Relationships: Their Nature and Significance of the Lifespan. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YtHoP5UYTDMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR4&dq=Sibling+Relationships:+Their+Nature+and+Significance+across+the+Lifespan&ots=mp06p2OoJL&sig=iMXvRaydY-B86IZ1nduyX2Wz8wc#v=onepage&q=Sibling%20Relationships%3A%20Their%20Nature%20and%20Significance%20across%20the%20Lifespan&f=false>
12. Rahv, G. (1980). Birth order and delinquency. The British journal of criminology. 20(4), 385-395 < http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/4/385.extract>
13. <http://www.missouriwestern.edu/psychology/research/psy302/fall95/lowery.htm>
14. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Zajonc>
15. <http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/adler.htm#Theory>
16. <http://www.sulloway.org/borntorebel.html>
17. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Rich_Harris#No_Two_Alike>
18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_development
19. http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/scientists/skinner/
20. http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
21. Sulloway, F. J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. (p.74). New York: Pantheon.
22. Harris, R. (2006). No two alike: Human nature and human individuality. W.W. Norton.
23. Lamb, M. E., & Sutton-Smith, B. (2006). Sibling relationships: Their nature and significance across the lifespan. New Jersey: LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Appendix 1 Kohlberg Test
What grade are you in?
How many kids are in your family?
What is your birth order?

Below is a scenario commonly used in the administration of Kohlberg tests. Silently read the scenario, and answer the subsequent questions.
*It is really important that you remain silent as you do this. Do not talk about the test till EVERYONE is done.

The Heinz Dilemma
A woman is near death from a special kind of cancer. There is one drug the doctors think might save her. It is a form of radium that a druggist in the same town has recently discovered. The drug is expensive to make, but the druggist is charging ten times what the drug costs him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium but is charging $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, has gone to everyone he knows to borrow the money, but he has only been able to get together about $ 1,000. He has told the druggist that his wife is dying and has asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist has refused, saying "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." Heinz becomes desperate and breaks into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.

Heinz Dilemma Questions
Answer the following questions independently and without discussion or comment. *Please, do not look at your neighbor’s answers.
1. Should Heinz have broken into the store to steal the drug for his wife?
1a. Why or why not?
2. Is it actually right or wrong for Heinz to steal the drug?
2a. Why is it right or wrong?
3. Does Heinz have a duty or obligation to steal the drug?
3a. Why or why not?
4. If Heinz doesn’t love his wife, should he have stolen the drug for her?
4a. Why or why not?
4b. Does it make a difference in what Heinz should do whether or not he loves his wife?
4c. Why or why not?
5. Suppose the person dying is not Heinz’ wife but a stranger; should Heinz steal the drug for the
5a. Why or why not?
6. Suppose it’s a pet animal that Heinz loves, should Heinz steal the drug to save the pet?
6a. Why or why not?
7. Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another’s life?
7a. Why or why not?
8. Does the fact that stealing is illegal make it morally wrong?
8c. Why or why not?
9. In general, should people try to do everything they can to obey the law?
9b. How does this way of thinking apply to what Heinz should do?
9c. Why?
10. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Heinz
to do?
10a. Why? PERSONAL INTEREST Psychology and sociology
Sibling interaction/ relationships GLOBAL RELEVANCE Moral development
"What guides human actions?"
Terrorist interrogation
Criminal examination
Healthy moral development = deeper global understanding Thanks to:
-Dr. Micahel Petelle
-Coach Samuel Fraundorf
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