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Peter the Great

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Jeff Rine

on 25 October 2018

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Transcript of Peter the Great

Peter the Great
AP Euro Curriculum
Key Concept 2.1 — Different models of political sovereignty affected the relationship among states and between states and individuals.

I. In much of Europe, absolute monarchy was established over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries.

A. Absolute monarchies limited the nobility’s participation in governance but preserved the aristocracy’s social position and legal privileges.

E. Peter the Great “westernized” the Russian state and society, transforming political, religious, and cultural institutions; Catherine the Great continued this process.

The Leadership of Moscow
• Ivan IV the Terrible (1533 – 1584), the first tsar
o Tsar = Caesar
o Expanded Russian territory Eastward
o Engaged in several unsuccessful battles versus Poland and Austria
o Crushed the power of the landed nobility—the
• The Time of Troubles (1584-1613)
o Peasant uprisings
o Pretenders to the throne
 Several “False Dimitris”
 Formation of the zemsky sobor (“assembly of the land”)
• Elected Michael Romanov

• Romanov Dynasty (1613 – 1917)
o Muscovite society was very rigid…no social mobility
 Tsar declared “divine right”
 Landed Aristocracy
 Merchants
 Peasants

• The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 – 1725)
o Born in June of 1672
o Simple in manners
 Ignored flashy dress
 Frequently enjoyed crude jokes
o 4 years old when dad died
o 1682-Peter declared joint czar along with Ivan V
 Ivan’s sister Sophia would be named regent…she would push Peter and his mother to live in Preobrazhenskoye
o He received an atypical education
o Mingled with foreigners in nearby villages
o Arranged to marry Yevdokia Fyodorovna Lopukhina (Eudoxia)
 Political move
 Peter would eventually send her to a convent
o Peter would become sole czar after Ivan’s death in 1696

Visits to the West (1697 – 1698)
• The Grand Embassy
o Organization of about 250 “grand ambassadors”
 Peter went with under the alias of SGT Pyotr Mikhaylov
o Examine international situation
o Strengthen anti-Turkish coalition (wanted control of the Black and Caspian Seas)
o Gather information on culture, economics, technology, and military

• Reorganization of armed forces
o Returned to Moscow in 1698
o Strelsty rebellion
 Streltsy-musketeers of the sovereigns body guard
 Hundreds executed
 Rest exiled

o Nobility became the officers
o Conscripted (drafting) peasants and townspeople into the other ranks
o Officers would instruct soldiers how to conduct themselves
 Show initiative in the face of the enemy
o Created a navy of 52 Battleships, hundreds of galleons
o The military consumed 4/5 of Russia’s revenue
 Peter adopted western
mercantilist policies

- a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In mercantilist theory, a nation’s international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Countries were to sell more to other countries that they bought,

• Reorganization of Central government
o Abolished the boyarskaya duma (boyar council) in 1711
o Established the senate
o Procurator general would be the “the eye of the sovereign”
• Instituted the Table of Ranks
o Opportunity for non-nobles to join the nobility
o Civil offices would consist of 14-ranked levels
 Start at the bottom…work your way up
 When you reached the eighth rank…gained noble status
o This ended with Peter

• Division of Russia into provinces
o Divided Russia into 8 guberny
 Guberny-governments
 Governor appointed by czar
 Governor had judicial, military, and administrative powers
o Wanted to create a “police state”
o Wanted to foster a sense of civic duty…literally instilled fear instead

• Control of the Russian church: the procurator
o Peter wanted state control of the orthodox church
 Abolished the Patriarchate of Moscow
• Patriarch (Orthodox) = Pope (Catholicism)
 Established the Holy Synod
• Hierarchy loyal to the czar
• Ferociously persecuted dissenters
• Censored all publications
 Wanted everyone to grow up “in fear of God” and in awe of the Czar

Introduction of Western Customs and Styles
o Introduced education along secular lines
 Children of soldiers, officials and churchmen admitted
 Russian students were encouraged to study abroad
o Other forms of Westernization
 Long beards were forbidden
• Peter would personally cut the beards of the boyars
• Those who did not want to shave their beards had to pay a tax
o Clergy and peasants could continue to wear them
o Positive impact of reforms on women
 Peter witnessed men and women mixing freely in Western courts
 Peter decreed that upper class women could remove traditional veils
 Social gathering three times a week
• Men and women could converse, dance, play games
 Women could marry of their own free will

The barber is going to cut the dissenter's beard
Listen barber, I don’t want my beard cut. Agh. I’ll soon call the guards to get you.
o St. Petersburg
 Founded in May 1703
• Named after St. Peter…not Peter the Great
o It has undergone several name changes throughout history
o May, 1703 - August, 1914 - St. Petersburg
o August, 1914 - February, 1924 - Petrograd
o February, 1924 - July, 1991 -Leningrad
o July, 1991 – Present - St. Petersburg
o Became the Russian capital until 1917 (Russian Revolution)
• “Window on the West”
• The Winter Palace
o Constructed in 1708
o Constantly expanded
o Built in baroque style
o Peter was motivated by Western European Soveriegns who had alo built grand palaces…specifically Versaille.

How much Westernization had occurred is debatable
• Western culture only reached the upper classes
• Large military increased burden on the people
• It was forced upon them
o Led people to despise and distrust Europe and western culture
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