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Historical Context: The American Revolution

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Martha Mitchell

on 12 September 2016

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Transcript of Historical Context: The American Revolution

hold
English Parliamentary Structure
The American Colonies
and England
I'm King James,
King of England
I'd also like to make NY and NY a new colony called
The Dominion of New England. I'll be in charge., so you people in those "assemblies" are out. I"m bringing in my own guy.
And you can pay your taxes to him whether you like it or not!
We think we should revolt
gloriously!
One result of the Glorious Revolution was
the English Bill of Rights
that stated that
and the right of
habeaus corpus
no person can be held in prison without
being charged with a crime.
A period of
began
Salutory neglect
We'll let you take care
of your own business.
Roots of
American
Benjamin Franklin
The Ideal Mon of
The Enlightenment
$
the idea that a country/empire could grow wealth by developing industries for exporting manufactured goods.
Mercantilism
a series of trade laws essentially limiting
colonial trade with anyone except Britain.
The Navigation Acts
1651-1733
= a shopper's paradise
The British get more aggressive and the French and Indians respond.
The Native Americans left behind after the Treaty of Paris suffered at the hands of the conquering British
Both the French and the English needed the Native Americans to be their guides and to protect them from rival tribes.

So they both gave the Native Americans gifts to try and woo them to their side. This was also good for the Native Americans.
However, the British effort to squash the rebellion was costly, and they issued the
The Proclamation of 1763
to restrict further British settlement on
Native American land.
The first political cartoon in the colonies.
Drawn by Benjamin Franklin (who else!?)
and published in the Philadelphia Gazette
before the Albany Convention of 1754
Stono Rebellion
Small Free Black
communities
runaways welcomed by Spanish

(some discrimination)
Some rebelled by
working slowly
feigning illness
breaking tools
Small Free Black
communities
Remember the headright system?
The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast, was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror, when I was carried on board. I was immediately handled, and tossed up to see if I were sound, by some of the crew; and I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me.
Tobacco farmland for rich
British people
What about people who couldn't afford to pay for passage?
They paid for their passage with a period of indentured
servitude, but, after 4- 7 years, they were free!
The Middle Passage

$
One day, when we had a smooth sea and moderate wind, two of my wearied countrymen who were chained together (I was near them at the time), preferring death to such a fife of misery, somehow made through the nettings and jumped into the sea; immediately, another quite dejected fellow, who, on account of his illness, was suffered to be out of irons, also followed their example; and I believe many more would very soon have done the same, if they had not been prevented by the ship's crew, who were instantly alarmed.

Those of us that were the most active, were in a moment put down under the deck; and there was such a noise and confusion
amongst the people of the ship
as I never heard before, to stop her,
and get the boat out to go after the slaves.
However, two of the wretches were drowned,
but they got the other, and afterwards
flogged him unmercifully,
for thus attempting to prefer death to slavery.
...we were all put under deck.... The stench of the hold while we were on the coast was so intolerably loathsome, that it was dangerous to remain there for any time, and some of us had been permitted to stay on the deck for the fresh air; but now that the whole ship's cargo were confined together, it became absolutely pestilential. The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died -- thus falling victims to the ,







as I may call it, of their purchasers. This wretched situation was again aggravated by the gaffing of the chains, now became insupportable, and the filth of the necessary tubs, into which the clihdren often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable..
improvident avarice
The
Africans
Originally, African workers were often treated as indentured servants.
They could own land, vote, and even buy
enslaved Africans on their own.
but in 1705, the Virginia General
Assembly declared
"All servants imported...who were not Christians in their
native country...shall be accounted and be slaves. "
Other laws stated that the children of enslaved African Americans were also slaves.
Oh, ye nominal Christians!
might not an African ask you, learned you this from your God, who says unto you, Do unto all men as you would men should do unto you? Is it not enough that we are torn from our country and friends to toil for your luxury and lust of gain? Must every tender feeling be likewise sacrificed to your avarice?




Are the dearest friends and relations, now
rendered more dear by their separation from their kindred, still to be parted from each other, and thus prevented from cheering the gloom of slavery with the small comfort of being together and mingling their sufferings and sorrows? Why are parents to lose their children, brothers their sisters, or husbands their wives? Surely this is a new
refinement in cruelty, which, while it has no advantage to atone forit, thus aggravates distress, and adds fresh horrors even to the
wretchedness of slavery.
Scotch - Irish escaping poverty
Germans fleeing religious prosecution
The Triangular Trade Route and
The Middle Passage
The idea that anyone, regardless of background,
can achieve success
The Stereotype
Definition
Primary Source:
The first articulation of the term: "The American Dream"
Immigration
a revolution in itself
Slavery
a revolution to come
Why did they get on the ship?
Some chose to get on the ship.
Who chose
to come?
Indentured Servants
people who paid for their
passage by agreeing to work
a period of indentured servitude
(usually 4-7 years).
1st slaves arrive in
New World:
1619
We hold these truths
to be self-evident
that all men are
created equal
Eyewitness to History
Eyewitness to History
Passage to America, 1750
Who did not choose to come?
Emigration decreased by the late 1600s
Therefore, there were fewer indentured servants
But there was vibrant global commerce system
Eyewitness to History
Slave Trade: The African Connection, ca 1788
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/slavetrade.htm

1783 Equiano informs abolitionist Granville Sharp of Zong massacre (1781),
which adds further emotional reactions to the anti-slave trade movement.

1786 Equiano appointed commissary to Sierra Leone recolonization expedition on the Committee for Relief of Black Poor in London.

1788 Equiano presents anti slave trade petition to England's Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III. Abolitionists petition British Parliament to end the slave trade.

1789 Equiano publishes his Interesting Narrative. French Revolution begins.

1790 The Narrative is printed in Dutch.

1791 Narrative printed in New York. Slave revolt in St. Dominique (Haiti)..

1797 Equiano dies in London.
.

1745 Olaudah Equiano born in Essaka, in what is now southeastern Nigeria.

1756 Kidnapped and is sold to various masters within Africa. Then endures the Middle Passage to Barbados and to Virginia.

1756 Bought by British Naval Officer Michael Henry Pascal and is renamed (against his will) Gustavus Vassa. Taken to England.

1763-66 He is resold to Robert King in Montserrat and works on trading ships in the West Indies and on the mainland American colonies.

1766 Through petty trading on the side, Equiano saves enough money to buy his own freedom.

1772 Granville Sharp gets the Somerset decision, declaring that slavery cannot
exist in England and slaves setting foot there are free.

1774 Equiano tries unsuccessfully to save his friend John Annis from a vengeful former master. Annis is tortured to death in the West Indies. Equiano sails for Spain and has a vision of Christ.

that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
1705 Virginia Legislation
"All servants imported who were
not Christians in their native Country
....shall be accounted and be slaves."
and
the children of slaves shall also be slaves
change in legal status
increased prejudice
Northern Colonies:
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies
Small numbers of Slaves
farmhands/ dockworkers,
sailors/house servants
often had opportunity to buy freedom

large numbers of Slaves
40% of population in Chesapeake
difficult manual labor
poor living conditions
culturally rich and varied
Subtle Rebellion

feigning illness
breaking tools
pretending ignorance
Violent Rebellion

Stono (1739)

Runaways

"maroons" hid in swamps/forest
some welcomed by the Spanish
Some tried to blend in with free black
communities in the Middle Colonies or North
Rhetoic of liberty
rhetoric is the art of
using words
http://www.teachingushistory.org/pdfs/complete_001.pdf
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/passage.htm
Daily Life on a Colonial Plantation
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/colonialplantation.htm
http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/
that all men are
are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights
Consider this context
these
truths
to be
self-
evident
The Magna Carta

English noblemen forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215.
limited the power of the King to levy taxes without consent
guaranteed the right of due process
eventually led to the establishment of Parilament

English Parliamentary System
Man has certain inalienable "natural" rights that came from God
John Locke
Judeo-Christian Roots
English Parliamentary Structure
Greco-Roman history
Philisophical Realationship
"He that lives upon hope
will die fasting"
We think we should revolt
gloriously!
and, most importantly, upheld the right of
habeaus corpus
The Ten Commandments and he New Testament inspired American ideas about government and morality

The Magna Carta
The English Bill of Rights
Roots of
American
Montesquieu
Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract
That contract should be clearly defined
The People cede some rights
to the government in return
for freedom and security
A Rolling Stone
Gathers No Moss
http://declaringamerica.com/franklin-list-of-virtues-autobiography-chapter-8-1730/
Benjamin Franklin
The Ideal Mon of
The Enlightenment
$
the idea that a country/empire could grow wealth by developing industries for exporting manufactured goods.
Mercantilism
a series of trade laws essentially limiting
colonial trade with anyone except Britain.
The Navigation Acts
1651-1733
= a shopper's paradise
I'm King James,
King of England
I'd also like to make NY and NY a new colony called
The Dominion of New England. I'll be in charge., so you people in those "assemblies" are out. I"m bringing in my own guy.
And you can pay your taxes to him whether you like it or not!
William and Mary lead the
Glorious Revolution (1660)
English Bill of Rights
As a condition for ruling,
William and Mary were forced to sign the
had to have Parliament's permission to tax
could not keep "a standing army within the kingdom in times of peace" and
could not require "excessive" bail, fines, or "cruel and unusual punishments"
The crown
that states that no person can be held in prison without being charged with a crime.
Government
Relationship
In the colonies,
royal governors begin to be forced to share power with colonial assemblies
Economic
Relationship
I'm King James,
King of England
I'd also like to make NY and NY a new colony called
The Dominion of New England. I'll be in charge., so you people in those "assemblies" are out. I"m bringing in my own guy.
And you can pay your taxes to him whether you like it or not!
We think we should revolt
gloriously!
One result of the Glorious Revolution was
the English Bill of Rights
that stated that
and the right of
habeaus corpus
no person can be held in prison without
being charged with a crime.
A period of
began
Salutory neglect
We'll let you take care
of your own business.
Roots of
American
Benjamin Franklin
The Ideal Mon of
The Enlightenment
$
the idea that a country/empire could grow wealth by developing industries for exporting manufactured goods.
Mercantilism
a series of trade laws essentially limiting
colonial trade with anyone except Britain.
The Navigation Acts
1651-1733
= a shopper's paradise
The economic relationship was based on the theory of Mercantilism
Mercantilism Defined
an economic theory in
which the mother country controls
and reaps profits from trade with its colonies
Mercantilism
illustrated
celebrated the values of
reason
science and
logic
1630
1692
SALEM
1636
1739: Benjamin Franklin, a great supporter of Enlightenment philosophy, wrote literature that was both didactic (providing moral instruction) and structured.
1) Poor Richard's Almanack: A collection of aphorisms (short, witty statements designed to provide moral instruction; synonyms – proverbs, mottos); also provided factual information for farming and business.
2)The Autobiography: Franklin describes his systematic attempt to achieve moral perfection. He shows how he outlines a chart of virtues and evaluated his progress daily. When there were no marks, he would be morally perfect: Irony: #13: Humility – imitate Jesus and Socrates.
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
The Great Awakening
1740
1630: City Upon a Hill
1636
Salem 1692
1651
1689
1748
1706-1790
The ultimate Enlightenment man
The Age of Reason Rockstar
The Great Awakening:
a religious revival of the 1740s
Jonathan Edwards urged a return to Puritan values, but his fire and brimstone rhetoric alienated many
George Whitefield
John Wesley
Other leaders of The Great Awakening encouraged people
to find religion on an individual and personal level
A individual and personal quest for liberty was the LOGICAL result
perhaps none was more influential in terms of revolutionary philosophy than

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
The Philosophical
Relationship
We
The
historical context
of the
American
Revolution
Full transcript