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The Rise of Nazi Germany
Transcript of The Rise of Nazi Germany
Rise of Hitler and the Nazis
The Weimar Republic was devastated by the Wall Street Crash in October 1929 and the Great Depression that followed.
As money was required for food, heating, a home etc. and with no obvious end to the Depression, people starting turning to the more extreme political parties in Germany- The Nazi and Communist parties.
In the 1930 Reichstag election, the Nazis gained 143 seats - Hitler only expected between 50 to 60 seats.
Growing Support for Political Extremism
Hitler Becomes Chancellor
In January 1933, Hindenburg thought he could get the Nazis on his side by offering to make Hitler vice chancellor. He refused and demanded to be made chancellor. They agreed, thinking they could control him.
In January 1933, Hitler became chancellor, and immediately set about making himself absolute ruler of Germany...
Reasons Why Hitler Rose to Power
a great, persuasive speaker who made promises - Gained a lot of support
Weakness of the opposition, other political parties underestimated the Nazis.
The Depression in 1929 and Hyperinflation
Propaganda lead by Goebbels was effective in exploiting peoples fears
From Chancellor to Führer...
In August 1934, Hitler declared himself
, the leader of Germany. What happened during 1933 and 1934 that allowed Hitler to take the ultimate position of authority?
27th February 1933, Reichstag building in Berlin is set on fire. A Dutch communist was found at the scene - Nazis claimed this was the start of a plot to take over Germany.
the Enabling act
14th July 1933, all political parties banned so that no new parties could be set up to challenge the Nazis.
30th June 1934, S.A. leaders were dragged from their beds, taken to Nazi headquarters and shot dead.
2nd August 1934, Hindenburg dies and Hitler declares himself President and Commander of the Army giving him more power and leadership being in charge of
Night of the Long Knives
Life in Nazi Germany
Propaganda and censorship...
Nazi Propaganda was controlled by Joseph Goebbels and all forms of communication in Germany: newspapers, magazines, books, public meetings, rallies, art, music, movies, and radio. Anything that was threatening to Nazi beliefs was banned.
On the night of the 10th May 1933, Nazis raided libraries and bookstores across Germany and marched through streets singing chants and threw books into huge bonfire burning over 25,000 books. Some of these books were written by Jewish writers or contained different views other than Nazi. This is known as censorship, forcing people to think Nazi and only read the Nazi views and ideas and noting else.
The Nazi "Police State"
The Nazi Police State was to ensure that everybody did as they were told - or paid the price. The Nazi Police were controlled by Heinrich Himmler and his feared secret police,
The S.S. was Hitler's private army. Himmler made sure all people part of the S.S. were Aryan type.
symbol for the S.S.
Key aspects of Nazi Foreign Policy:
End the restrictions on Germany of the Versailles treaty
Unite all German speaking people in one country to make a greater Germany -
take over countries
Promote Nazi ideology to the world - Aryan, antisemitism, pro-fascist and anti-communist
Germany’s economy was in a mess when Hitler was elected Chancellor in January 1933. Hitler and Nazi propaganda had exploited people's fear of no hope. Unemployment peaked at 6 million during the final days of the Weimar Republic. The "economic miracle" was based on unemployment dropping by a large amount by 1939.
People had jobs and a wage, Nazis set up a scheme called
strength through joy
in which workers were rewarded and, the streets were safe with no crime. Germany was strong and successful in world affairs.
Work and Leisure
Hitler’s set up the National Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst or RAD). This organisation gave men jobs in public works schemes, such as the digging drainage ditches on farms, planting new forests, building schools and hospitals and building a network of motorways. Members of the RAD had to wear military uniform and live in camps, and they were only given pocket money as wages. However, for many thousands of men, the RAD provided a better way of life than life with no work at all, and they got free meals.
In March 1935 the Nazis introduced compulsory military service for young men and re-started the development of an air force (Luftwaffe). The army grew quickly from 100,000 in 1933 to 1,400,000 in 1939.
A huge party organisation called ‘Strength Through Joy’ (Kraft Durch Freude- KDF) had the job of organising the leisure activities of the people. This provided workers with cheap holidays, contorlled the entertainment and offered people cheap cars- the Voltswagen beetle. But not a single car was sold to a German customer.
Youth and Education
The Hitler Youth was a extension of Hitler's belief that the future of Nazi Germany was its children. The Hitler Youth was used to prepare boys for military service. In 1936, the Hitler Youth was made compulsory.
The activites included:
use of dugouts
how to get under barbed wire
The girl version of this was the League of German Maidens, where they would be prepared for motherhood. Girls had to be able to run 60 metres in 14 seconds, throw a ball 12 meters, complete a 2 hour march, swim 100 metres and know how to make a bed.
The Nazis wanted to control young people making sure of their support of the future. They did this by changing what they learned in school. By rewriting text books so it only contained Nazi ideas and messages, was forcing them to learn the Nazi way- this is known as censorship. History was about the rise of the Nazi party and the greatness of the Nazi party. Biology was to teach race science, and was taught how to classify racial types. P.E was used to get boys fit for the army and girls fit for motherhood.
The Role of Women
Hitler wanted the role of women in the Nazi sate to be simple- a good housewife and mother. Women were expected to stay at home and look after the family, they were not allowed to have a career. Their job was to keep the house tidy for their husband and family- their life should revolve around the three "c's":
Hitler wanted a high birth rate so the population would grow. Hitler introduced a medal called "the motherhood cross" for women who had eight or more children. Girls and women would do exercise so they would stay fit and healthy to make them healthy for childbirth.
Women had to look a certain way; plain peasant costumes, hair in plaits or buns and flat shoes. Not to wear make-up or trousers, dye their hair or smoke in public.
The 1936 Olympic Games
Adolf Hitler used the olympic games to showcase the greatness of Germany to the world, and use the olympics to promote racial superiority and Nazi ideals.
THe Nazi party did not want to allow blacks or jews to participate in the olympics. However, they were allowed once other nations threatened to boycott the olympics.
The Nazis believed in Constructive Christianity and freedom for every religious group- but they also thought of them as a threat to policies. the Nazis started to close Catholic churches, A member of the Nazi party was elected Bishop of the Church. Church members called themselves German Christians with the saying
"the Swastika on their chest and the Cross in their heart"
The Treatment of Minorities
Hitler explained in his book Mein Kampf (my Struggle), how he believed that the German people were the true Aryan race and that their purity and superiority had to be maintained at all costs and eliminate those who had no place in the master race. Hitler also explained how the Aryans had been responsible for all major advances in civilization. When Hitler was made Chancellor in 1933, he started to persecute those who didn't fit his ideal race
Groups which experienced Nazi Prosecution during the 1930s:
P.M. King Visits Hitler
In 1937, Canadian P.M. Mackenzie King visited Germany, where he met with Herman Goering (German air Minister) and Adolf Hitler.
Hitler assured King that Germany did not want a war
"My sizing up of the man as I sat and talked with him was that he is really one who truly loves his fellow-men, and his country, and would make any sacrifice for their good." (Diary, June 29, 1937)
Hitler appeared to be "a man of deep sincerity and a genuine patriot." (Diary, June 29, 1937)
King was impressed by Hitler. In his diary He wrote:
Germany in Debt -
Adolf Hitler -
Not so Fast -
Birth of Nazism -
Hitler Becomes the Chief of Propganda for the Workers Party in the early 1920s. and changed the political party's name to the NAZI party
German Military employ Hitler as a spy
Soldier in WWI, now Out of a Job? German military demobilized
Why? Paying for War! (Treaty of Versailles Reparations)
By July 1932, the Nazis gained 230 seats making them the largest party in the Reichstag.
He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag.
Members of the Communist Party were arrested by the S.A.
The Reichstag Fire Decree 28 February 1933,
rescinded most German civil liberties, including
rights of assembly and freedom of the press.
Allowed the police to detain people indefinitely without charges or a court order
Gave Hitler power to pass laws without going through anyone.
23rd March 1933
The Nazis were now the only party in Germany
This sent a warning to the rest of Germany about how ruthless Hitler was in pursuit of power.