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Transcript of Plant Adaptations
1.6-1.7 billion years ago
320 million years ago
First developed in the Carboniferous Period
358.9 - 298.0 million years ago
Protective film covering on the epidermis of leaves
Regulates rate of transpiration and CO2 exchange
Made of lipid and hydrocarbon polymers
Allowed plants to grow larger
Could now survive without being submerged in water
regulated the water loss in cells
Plants needed to avoid draining their water supply during transpiration
Could not grow large because water could not be transported very far
251 to 488.3 million years ago when vascular plants developed.
Spreads equal amounts of water and nutrients throughout the plant.
Advanced Biology Class of 2013-2014
typically autotrophic organisms
unicellular and multicellular form
lack many distinct cell and organ types found in land plants
First Cuticles in Early Plants
Structure and Functions
of the Cuticle
Benefits of a Cuticle
Need for the Cuticle
What caused change?
Structure and function
130 million years ago!!
Flowering plants appeared in the Cretacious period, Mesozoic era
Shortage of water caused the plants to become more efficient.
Receive more sunlight because they are taller.
Veins to disperse water equally
Tracheids and vessel elements are the conducting cells or the xylem
Structure and Function
Lack structures of lands plants
leaf-like phylids of bryophyts
rhizoids in nonvascular plants
photosynthetic machinery derived from cynobacteria and produce oxygen
Yeah...we're the pretty ones
Factors causing change...
Flower- Attracts pollinators, reproduction
Who wouldn't be attracted to these?
have a better chance
within species though
From non-seed producing ancestors of the extinct division of Progymnospermophyla
300 million years ago
Structures & Functions
Parent plant protects & supports the young plant in the seed during development
Contains food supply
Food stored in the seed nourish the young plant until it becomes self-sufficient
Thrive in many different environments
Water must be present for a sperm to reach an egg in both non-vascular & seedless vascular plants
Seed plants do not require a film of water for that process
This adaptation allows seed plants to survive in different environments, even in areas where water is scarce
Embryo sporophyte, grown from the one-celled zygote & a seed coat for protection and/or dispersal
Gymnosperms: seeds that develop on the surface of the reproductive structures
Angiosperms: seeds developed within a specialized structure (an ovary) on the adult sorophyte
Lumber, soap, varnish, nail polish, food, gum, & perfumes