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AsherCHINA-6First Empire: Qin to Han

Noticing how a philosophy can become every day realities...

Kathleen Asher

on 30 April 2012

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Transcript of AsherCHINA-6First Empire: Qin to Han

"I intend to..."

Deepen my understanding of the First Empire:

consider links between the philosophy of Legalism and the Qin Dynasty that followed.

Learn about Han Dynasty

Deepen my understanding of the 'dynastic cycle'. HOTSEAT GAME

-Consider the words: Come up with some main themes:
i.e. - politics... Hieroglyphics Nile Valley Paradigm Mesopotamia polytheistic mental baggage Yahweh God Creationism Anthromorphic Creation Stories Natural Selection Hammurabi Consider main themes... Reflect... Recall the terms acculturation, globalization and cultural diffusion.

Investigation of the world in your home:

Find your list of your 8 to 15 items and where they were made.

(30 seconds)

Is your list an example of globalization - why or why not?;
Can you link any items on your list to the idea of acculturation or cultural diffusion? Review: Structured dialogue:
Partner 1:

30 seconds:
"I noticed that..."

"This is an example of globalization because..." Whip around
switch...Partner 2:

30 seconds:
"I noticed that..."

"This is an example of globalization because..." Organize ourselves in 4 Directions... Looking back to our list of items 'Made In...'...
We saw how things can move across cultures and borders... How about the production and transfer of ideas? East find an East... West find a West.

Partner A...Ask Partner B to: "Please tell me 2 or 3 features of geography of China, and connect it to how Ancient Chinese Civilization evolved."

Partner B responds while Partner A listens... think...,
pair, share... whip around... Confucius

Shang society 1600 to 1027 B.C. - size of modern France on the North China Plain. In Chinese terms: "Civilization means" to transform by writing.
1- Randomly pick 10 to 15 products from home or classroom, and notice where they came from - 'Made In...' NAME (don't forget) ? ? ? ? ? Discuss: The most interesting, surprising or significant piece of information Individually, think...
What is it that interests me about these 5 points?

PAIR UP. Discuss and decide on 3 that you find the most interesting. Whip Around! This weekend I dressed up. I've got a sweet set of wheels. I checked out the Occupy protest movement, downtown, and talked to some folks down there to hear what their deal is. It is helpful to realize that groups of people, with their ways of life, ideas, governing structures, are constantly interacting... in constant flux, constant change... Consider the discussion rubrics. Remember good discussion comes from listening to each other, questioning the ideas/ materials, and knowing the information. Review: The dynastic cycle: 5-
One Learning Task: I commented on your 'tickets out' from last class... Anyone else? Okay... okay... now... Do you this point simplified. let's move on... bring your attention back to the looking at different perspectives. sorry- last one... hee hee, lol First step: then note- there are no 'right or wrong' reasons for why you chose what you chose. 5-3-One Revisit the learning intentions you wrote down at the beginning of the class.

- most ambitious building project of the ancient world,
Great Wall of China:
-2000kms of inhospital terrain;
-700,000 of soldiers, merchants, and male and female prisoners...
-workers were often harassed by marauding barbarians,
-many of them killed while working and buried inside the wall
-defense mechanism, that defined China's northern territorial boundaries for centuries.
The time the Great Wall was built, it was a time of
-time of outlawing local customs;
-unifying and standardizing the coinage;
-same time when the terra cotta warriors were constructed (we'll see more of this soon)... that 'protected' the tomb of China's First Emperor Shi Haungdi - end of the Zhou Dynasty... we'll return to this story tomorrow or next class.
-Burnt the books, and killed several intellectuals.
-But- keep in mind, this guy, Shi Haungdi was written in Chinese history texts as having a very tarnished reputation - he was ill-reputed.
-The textbook says, that the 'magnitude of the First Emperor's achievements hould have assured him a glorious place in history... if he had been a European monarch, his name would probably have been followed by 'the Great'. We can apply the concept of constant change, constant flux, and constant interaction, not only to groups of people, but ourselves as individuals, and our ideas. check time. When we review them, please have your... China Unit Outline from last class. I just want to have a look at it. Now focus the mind. Master the mind... Let's move on to the 3rd question... what was it again? http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/QinShiHuangdi Anything I(Miss Asher) could do, to help her focus. - time comments from ticket out? time time Please take a look at your
self-ASSESSMENT page.... and fill in any thing that's
Any thing you would like clarified from your ticket's out?
Any thing you concerns fr om your ticket out?
Any questions right off the bat? So... what you didn't understand
yesterday, you may understand today,
if not today, some future time. We've prepared our desks/ learning space...

Now prepare the mind... for focusing on rest of the class.
So far, any comments?
Any concerns you'd like to raise?
Any questions right off the bat, before we proceed? Ticket Out from Friday... Please take a few minutes to review what is written on there... (what you wrote and what I wrote).

With a partner, please share the comments, and discuss.

No judgement.
Be curious.
Stay on task. There are many ways to study History;
Different ways of telling the same story... but the story changes depending on who the story teller is, and their 'mental baggage'. Note: The stages of history that
the text uses to organize are different (Now let's take a break from these concepts for a moment and return to more familiar ground...).

You can listen to the story of China, through listening to a story about the inventions made in China for example... Now pull out your 3 interesting points from last class... and we'll review the video - and you can add to your interesting points. then What could we learn by hearing a story about the dynastic cycles in China? You could study this for years. I'll try and simplify. Let's hear what we learned.

Chinese Historians have always been writing the stories of the rise and fall of Dynasties.

There seems to be patterns (and cycles) in the way societies evolve. Societies seem to move from order to disorder to order, to disorder, and so on. Unfortunately, we (as a class) don't have the time to move into this in depth. If you have an interest in examining this further, I can give you some suggestions after class.

But I can TRY and help you make sense of it with some simplified:
Orderly Societies:
Societies can be orderly, because they're controlled (by ruling bodies/propoganda/laws);
or appeased (satisfied with the status quo);

When societies are disorderly:
When the common people are not getting their basic needs met they are motivated to survive, so they organize and rise up against the 'powers that be'.

Often the need to survive is a motivation for higher education which can lead to a shift in the cycle (from orderly to disorderly).
Or, when rulers from outside of the society want to expand their powers, they maycreate disorder by forcing themselves (one way or another) into a position of power in the existing society. One way could be through the economy, another way could be preventing access to essential resources (either through man made borders, or preventing the flow of resources, like food or water, to the people)... There are reasons for the
rise and fall of Dynasties. These patterns are reflected in the way
Chinese Historians have recorded their History. The recorded stories of the dynastic cycles seem repetitive... to the Western reader, because their basically describing the pattern over and over again....

Okay- let's step back. Another way could be by mis-educating the common people, or by poorly educating the common people.
-essentially... 'brainwashing' But... don't worry, some more of this will come to light, through our discussions. Think of what you know
of the world already. text
'Time & History in China' Groups of people have tendencies to share their stories
in the same way. We can find patterns in the values and ideas that define groups.

Values & ideas are the cornerstone to culture.

Patterns of values & ideas in cultures are called 'cultural paradigms'. They are hard to identify,
especially in your own culture, because people are soooo accustomed to living with them... THE
QUIZ!! What do you notice about your response to those two cultural symbols or ideas? There's no ultimate truth in
'running out of time'... we create that experience, and relive it every day in our culture. There's no ultimate truth in quizzes being an accurate judge of one's intellectual competence (smartness). Zhou Dynasty (during Classical Age) to the Qin Dynasty All of us, in this room, have been
raised (in homes and in society) with a cultural paradigm that narrows are perception of the truth/reality... time time Prepare for learning Prepare your desk/ your space housekeeping items Now we can move on today's learning intentions. Some housekeeping... 50% 50% Background From the text:
-during Classical Era

-Greatest Intellectual period of the world;

-the age of the 'hundred flowers';

-the most intellectually fertile period in the history of the world; -The people in China shared a common belief that order must arise not from spiritual intervention, but through the efforts of human being themelves. A concept called humanism. Pair up AGAIN-
The most important/ interesting piece of information... Choose a speaker. Dynastic Cycle-Eternal lessons Confucianism:4 paragraphs-Education through practice: -see page 138/139Read, and choose a phrase or an idea that really sticks out for you for each of the following:

filial piety
and/or other. Model First Word... family-centred values
thirst for education
strong work ethic
belief in courtesy not confrontation
to achieve final haromy in the family of humanity Confucianism was challenged.

Opposed to Confucius's doctrines of social responsibility. Take out: He realized that to get people to change their behaviour, he would hve to change or even reverse their usual perceptions.

'Do nothing, and nothing will not be done'.

'Water is soft and rocks are hard, he observed, 'The water wears away the rock.' Learning Intentions Learning Intentions How do cultural groups differ,
in terms of how each group relates to time?

Consider the dominant 'western paradigm' first. If you did read the 1 page article on the Chinese Calendar... any reflections/comments? Now let's work in pairs.

First - Why change up our learning partners? ww.youtube.com/watch?v=x7woWuZ5z_E option: finish the video re. Ancient Chinese Inventions & Western Perspectives Because, If we listen to who we have always listen to...

we'll always hear, what weve always heard...

Just as... If we look at where you've always looked,
you'll always see what you've always seen. Review:
'Western' Culture:
pattern of judging based on 'progress'.
progress is better.

More, Faster... is the goal... ww.youtube.com/watch?v=nFs80rf9D4Q&feature=related First by Mo Zi, then by Lao Zi Current Affair -
Oct27-23.20 Filial Piety
Education Values
Courtesy Note... viagra is unique to some cultures.
In Australia, I remember seeing Viagra bulletins everywhere! Notice cultural difference is recognized in subtle ways and in very obvious ways. Some housekeeping:
-This week: ... Great Wall of China:
-thousands of kms of inhospital terrain;
-700,000 of soldiers, merchants, and male and female prisoners...
-workers were often harassed by marauding barbarians,
-many of them killed while working and buried inside the wall
-defense mechanism, that defined China's northern territorial boundaries for centuries. Burning of all the intellectual books.

Only kept the technical books... Legalism:
- a philosophy
-not concerned with ethics,
-only with power of the state,
-and the elevation of its ruler. Qin Dynasty-221BCE to 207BCE do the math ww.youtube.com/watch?v=9iKdLRJWtPg Next was the Han Dynasty -Roman's called China 'The Land of Silk'
-China called Rome 'The Great Qin' (in honour)
Note- unlike Rome, China built in wood.

-world's first intercontinental trade route (Silk Road)

population: 50-60million
90% peasants (and prosperous!)
ruled from 207BCE to 220AD: (400 years)

-huge bureaucracy

-conquered Korea, Vietnam, Central Asia,
-it's earliest contacts with Japan

Confucianism declared the state religion
-1st university with a curriculum based on Confucian philosophy;
-competitive examination systems to hold public office;
-managed everything from taxes to defense. then... disunion - The Dark Ages of China.
(4th to 7th Century)
-Tibetans held northern China for almost 300 years... But, as time went on they also tended to adopt Chinese culture (language, dress & food)... and cross-cultural marriages. Note... the Tibetan people had at some point lived nomadically, as tribes responsible for raiding and ruling northern China... -Transform by writing, and by media.
-Buddhism... a quick side track...
a-brainstorm... pair share...
b-view video- and think about how cultures are transmitted between generations... ww.youtube.com/watch?v=2fYuKVXC4WA&feature=related or by media,
& most recently social media. SPECIAL ASSIGNMENT.... SLOPPY RESEARCH...
-Encoded in your special assignment will be your instructions... the message will self-destruct... in... 5... 4.... 3... 2.. Whip around... living peacefully... When? or 552BC -MISSION YOUTUBE
-Key search terms: Dalai Lama, China, Tibet (any combo of).
-Notice the comments. SPECIAL SLOPPY RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT... reflection! This message will self destruct in 5... 4... 3...2..... ONE! REVIEW... GO! an 'ism.'... not a person... Notice the 1292- Yuan Dynasty:
Ghenghis Khan Pick up: a) Discussion rubric (with feedback)
b) one blank; Does anything need to be said? How was the weekend? Any major stresses? Good news? Anticipation on the week? What's the general feeling about finally moving to the learning assignment?
Are there any questions about the grading?
How about the Unit we're working on? The in-class assignment. The Case Study will help you to understand the Tibet-China issue. More importantly, it will help you to recognize the many elements of culture, and how cultures interact, and change. Your understanding of Comparative Civilization will expand. You can apply your new understanding to the rest of your formal studies, and in life as you continue to develop your relationship with the world, and the people in it. Ticket In the Door... ww.spike.com/video-clips/8uhtpy/mongol-theatrical-trailer read in text... What's Important and Why about Qin Dynasty. 213BCE -

Li Si- 'Li Ssu' (the Prime Minister to Shi Huang Di)
-complained of words of wise and ancient philosophers, used against the Emperor.
-demanded all books be burned;
-only practical works to be studies: agriculture, medicine, pharmacy, and divination (?);
-scholars who did not comply were made an example of
-100,000s of soldiers, merchants, conscripts, prisoners: --joined and extended The Great Wall of China (page 143).

Note- Next 400 years until AD 175, classical literature and philosophy reconstructed/ engraved on stone tablets. Shi Huangdi/ First Emperor
-ordered first standard dictionary;
-royal roads/ express lanes;
-outlawed folksongs/ local festivals;

Died in 211BCE
-predecessor was incompetent and cruel;
-rebellions broke out; and new Dynasty emerged. Note: Mo Zi - practice of universal love;
'Be willing to destroy yourself from head t o foot for the sake of others.' (page 139)
-his pacifism, simple, self-sacrificing lifestyle, and emphasis on 'heaven' led early Christian missionaries in China to compare him to Jesus Christ. (page 140) The First Empire:
1- The Qin Dynasty founded it;
-The Han dynasty consolidated it;
-Age of Disunion from 220 to 589 destroyed it GOVERNMENT & BUREAUCRACY
-page paragraphs:
1& 2: Political doctrine
3&4: Inner court
5&6: Outer court
7&8: Organizational structure
9&10: law
Decline of the Han:
great markets;
price controls including luxury item
glass/ amber/ spices/ slaves
Military costs, and bureaucratic salary = deficit
taxes raised/ peasants suffered
growing gap b/w rich and poor
independent land owners forced to sell
Great landlord families arose (enough to corrupt tax collectors, therefore...) ;
from 75 AD most emperors succeeded to throne as teenagers, dominated by mothers/ and mother's families...
internal politics ensued:
(eunuchs court officials fighting for powers/ disloyal generals)
Han Dynasty came crashing down in 220CE Homework: What's Important and Why: 'The Period of Disunion':

(7 paragraphs - page 147/148) Ended the Classical Age The dynastic cycle: Shifts (disorder to order)
new state harnesses support of the people
state organizes, and society resumes control 1. A new ruler unites China, founds a new dynasty, and gains the Mandate of Heaven.
2. China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity
3. The population increase
4. Corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability.
5. A natural disaster wipes out farm land. The disaster normally would not have been a problem; however, together with the corruption and overpopulation it causes famine.
6. The famine causes the population to rebel and starts a civil war.
7. The ruler loses the Mandate of Heaven.
8. The population decreases because of the violence
9. China goes through a warring states period.
10. One state emerges victorious.
11. The state starts a new empire.
12. The empire gains the Mandate of Heaven. Disorderly societies:
not getting their basic needs met
no cohesion across the society (political or otherwise)
motivated to survive, Orderly Societies (controlled or appeased):
mental/ physical control (ruling bodies, propoganda, deep traditions/belief systems,laws/punishments);
appeased (satisfied with the status quo) Shifts:
order to disorder
external forces (outside ruling bodies/ natural disasters)
collective knowledge
- less aware leads to vunerable collective, or
-new knowledge/ more aware (leads to progressive movements) note- 15 minutes-4 notes
Full transcript