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Benjamin Bloom and Bloom's Taxonomy

EDU 372 Educational Psychology: Week #1 ASSIGNMENT

Victoria Schultz

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of Benjamin Bloom and Bloom's Taxonomy

Here is a good example of how the six cognitive processes of Bloom's Taxonomy can be organized from the lower to higher thinking skills using the revised names.
Bloom believed there were three different categories of learning: Cognitive (head); Affective (heart); and Psychomotor (hands). Using the revised version, Cognitive becomes: Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS), and the Affective and Psychomotor become: Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). An interesting idea suggested by Marc-Andre Lalande and Judith Cantin is using a combination of Bloom's Taxonomy with Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The idea is that "[. . .] targeted learning should fall in the ZPD, but the learning activity shouldn't. This activity should mobilize knowledge, skills or competencies from a higher level of Bloom's taxonomy, when possible" (Lalande & Cantin, 2012). The following is a very interesting video where they explain how this theory can be put into practice.
Bloom's goal was to change the focus of educators from having students memorizing facts to using cognitive skills and critical thinking in order to obtain a deeper understanding and actually learn the material.

Critics found that "In the 1956 version, the verbs associated with each cognitive level describe behaviors. However, the same behavior can sometimes be performed at different cognitive levels" (Munzenmaier & Rubin, 2013). This prompted the revision by one of his students, Lorin Anderson, in 2001. The revision was meant to more fully address this issue and it provides more detail by creating subcategories within two main categories—knowledge and cognitive processes. (2013)

Benjamin S. Bloom and Bloom's Taxonomy
A Brief Biography of
Benjamin S. Bloom
1913 ~ 1999
Born February 21, 1913
Lansford, Pennsylvania
“Education must be increasingly concerned about the fullest development of all children and
youth, and it will be the responsibility of the school to seek learning conditions that enable each individual to reach the highest level of learning possible for her or him"
~ Benjamin S. Bloom ~
Bachelor’s & Master’s from Pennsylvania State
University in 1935

Victoria Schultz ~ EDU 372: Educational Psychology ~ Instructor: Keisa Williams
April 07, 2014

Ph.D. in Education from the University of Chicago in 1942
Became an Instructor for the Department of Education at the University of Chicago 1944 and in 1970 was appointed as Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor.
1948, teamed up with a group of colleagues in the American Psychological Association which culminated in the creation of “Bloom’s Taxonomy.”
Bloom's taxonomy in the Classroom
Encouraging Risk taking & Exploration
Using the two dimension of the revised Taxonomy: The Knowledge Dimension and The Cognitive Process Dimension, in combination with the four primary types of knowledge: Factual; Conceptual; Procedural; and Metacognitive, it can be determined how the student may best apply or utilize what they have learned. This information arranged in the following diagram, is particularly helpful when creating lesson plans for experiential or project based learning.
Staff member and University Examiner of the Board of Examinations at the University of Chicago 1940 ~ 1959
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 1:
Cognitive Domain
by Benjamin S. Bloom
Developing Talent in
Young People
by Benjamin S. Bloom

Evaluation To Improve Learning
by Benjamin S. Bloom
All Our Children Learning: A Primer for Parents, Teachers & Other Educators
by Benjamin S. Bloom
Handbook on Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning
by Benjamin S. Bloom

Human Characteristics and School Learning
by Benjamin S. Bloom
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 2/Affective Domain
by David R. Krathwohl,
Benjamin S. Bloom,
Bertram B. Masia
Affective Domain: The Classification of Educational Goals
(Taxonomy of Educational Objectives)
by David R. Krathwohl,
Benjamin S. Bloom
A few noted works written by Bloom
as provided by Goodreads.com
Photo #1: Benjamin S. Bloom (Northern Arizona University , n.d.)
(Guskey, 2006)
Biographical facts as provided by: (University of Chicago, 1999)

Born to Learn. (2011, March , 10). Born to Learn. (Viceo File). Retrieved from : http://youtu.be/


Foster, R. (2013, Jan. 17) Stick Figure #1 (Image) Retrieved from: http://


FUNTeachingis. (2012, Jul. 29). Bloom's Taxonomy according to Andy Griffith . (Video File).

Retrieved from : (Please see imbedded video for URL info. )

Goodreads. (n.d.) Benjamin S. Bloom. Retrieved from: https://www.goodreads.com/author


Guskey, T..R. (2006). Benjamin S. Bloom: Portraits of an Educator. Rowman & Littlefield

Education Lanham, Maryland. (pp 12). Retrieved from: http://chapters.scarecrowpress.com/15/788/1578862434ch1.pdf

Lalande, M. (2012, Sept. 18). Aiming Higher: Bloom and Vygotsky In the Classroom. (Video File).

Retrieved from: (Please see imbedded video for the URL)

Lefrancois, G. (2011). Psychology for Teaching. Bridgepoint Education, Inc. San Diego, Ca. (pp. 2:6)
Retrieved from: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUEDU372.11.1/sections/sec2.6

Munzenmaier, C. MS & Rubin, N. PhD. (2013). Bloom's Taxonomy: What's Old is New Again. The

eLearning Guild. Retrieved from: http://educationalelearningresources.yolasite.com/resources/guildresearch_blooms2013%20%281%29.pdf

Northern Arizona University. (n.d.). Helping Thinkers BLOOM! (Photo #1, #2 ). Retrieved from:


Portis, D. (2011, May, 27). Stick Figure #2.
When Family Can't Forge
t. (Image). Retrieved from:

University of Chicago. (1999, Sept. 23). Bloom, influential education researcher. Cronical. (Vol. 19

No. 1) Retrieved from: http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/990923/bloom.shtml
Bloom's Taxonomy
In the late 1940's Bloom and a few of his colleagues at the American Psychological Association agreed that many different factors can influence the development humans from their unique heredity to the environment they live in and they collaborated and developed his "Taxonomy" to provide a definitive way in which educators could measure a student's progress according to their individual abilities and aptitudes.

"Each of us is unique. There is no normal, average child; the average child is a myth invented by grandmothers and investigated by psychologists"
(Lefrancois, 2011).
Photo #2: (Northern Arizona University, n.d.)
Bloom's Taxonomy is still being used by a good majority of educators although it falls short of our current knowledge of how students learn. His theory is meant to provide a basic guideline and "[. . .] he hoped that this classification system would support the development of a comprehensive theory by providing a framework that educators could use to identify research problems, develop hypotheses, plan learning, and identify methods and metrics, and by defining a common language to use when setting learning goals, measuring outcomes, and sharing findings" (Munzenmaier & Rubin, 2013). For instance, he provided three domains of learning and included a list of abilities associated with each demonstrated by the chart shown below:
(Munzenmaier & Rubin, 2013)
(Munzenmaeir & Rubin, 2013)
(Munzenmaier & Ruben, 2013)
The Bloom's Taxonomy & ZPD HYBRID
(Born to Learn, 2011)
In current Brain-based Education theory it is believed that:
"The brain continues to grow new neurons, a function that can be enhanced by exercise, reduction of stress, and nutrition.
Social conditions influence brain functioning in ways that might be strengthened by arranging social groupings rather than allowing them to occur randomly.
The brain is highly plastic. Its ability to rewire itself can be assisted though reading, meditation, the arts, career and technical education, and the development of cognitive skills" (Lefrancois, 2011).

Therefore, teaching cognitive skills as well as a variety of other subjects; of providing time for recreation, stress reduction, and physical activity; and of arranging for optimal social groupings should result in a positive learning experience and a higher level of understanding for students. Using Bloom's Taxonomy in conjunction with technology and experiential learning/teaching techniques help to utilize many aspects of learning and to take advantage of the brain's many natural abilities that also include using the body and spirit, which perhaps should be described as a holistic approach and may be the missing link which provides the key to a universally successful teaching strategy. The secret appears to be that to gain success on a grand scale, the needs of the individual must be assessed, addressed, and ultimately met. By providing challenges that fit within a student's ZPD, encouraging them to take risks and to embrace making mistakes instead of punishing them for it, and giving the student a greater responsibility for their learning process there is every reason to believe that the outcome will be one of greater success and far less failure on the part of educators.
Just for fun!
Stick figure #1 (Foster, 2013)
Stick Figure #2 (Portis, 2011)
Full transcript