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Case Study: Mozambique Flooding
Transcript of Case Study: Mozambique Flooding
People were forced to flee their homes. Some of the worst hit were people living in make shift homes in the slums of the capital city, Maputo.
Immediate responses to the Mozambique flood.
The damage caused by the floods to the infrastructure could take years to repair.
Long term Responses to the Mozambique flood.
1160mm of rain fell during February. This is over 6 times the normal monthly average of 175mm.
Botswana received 75 per cent of its yearly rainfall in just three days.
In January and February 2000, exceptionally heavy rains hit Southern Africa.
The rain fell almost continuously for 5 weeks.
Cyclone Eline hit the Mozambique coast near the central city of Beira on the 22nd of February with winds measuring up to 160mph.
The rainfall from the cyclone ran into the Limpopo, Zambezi and other rivers. These rivers flow through Mozambique into the sea.
The amount of rainfall caused the rivers to burst their banks, causing severe flooding.
Causes of the Mozambique flood.
Impacts of the Mozambique flood
Mozambique is located on the East coast of Africa.
It borders South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi and the United Republic of Tanzania.
Mozambique has a population is around 20 million and is still growing.
The Floods started on the 9th February with heavy rainfall across Southern Africa
By the 2nd of March floodwater levels had risen from 4 to 8 metres in only 5 days.
Mozambique witnessed it's worst flooding in 50 years
Services became cut off leaving many people stranded.
The main north- south road became impassable due to flooding in Sofala. Cutting off traffic between the capital and Beira
23,000 people were left without a single possession.
Infrastructure, homes and farm land were destroyed.
Contaminated water lead to a outbreak of diseases like cholera.
United Nations reported that 150,000 people were in immediate danger from lack of food and disease.
100,000 people had to be evacuated and a further 7,000 had to be rescued from trees were they sought refuge
$13 million worth of urgent relief supplies were needed.
The international community sent relief workers and helicopters to help with the recovery of the stranded.
$65 million is needed to help re build the roads, bridges and power supplies.
Relief workers distributed hygiene kits, medicine and collapsible water tanks. Top priority was supplying clean water.
More trees were planted in hope that they would soak up rainwater before it entered the river.
River channels were deepened to increase the volume of water the river could manage.
Flood barriers and embankments were built to prevent further flooding.
Early warning systems were introduced to save more lives in any future floods
A flood occurs when a river bursts it banks allowing water to flow into flood plains.
Floods are usually caused by heavy rain. The heavy rain fall causes the water to move more quickly. The faster the water is moving as it reaches the channel the more likely flooding is to occur.
The landscape around a river can influence how fast the river water is moving.
River management can help prevent further flooding in the future
Hard-engineering (more expensive and has greater impact on river and landscape.)
1) Construction of a dam, along course of the river, to control the water flow. This holds water behind the dam in a reservoir and water is let through periodically.
Natural Causes of Floods
2) River Engineering involves the alteration of the river, either making it deeper or wider, to carry more water. The channel's course may also be altered to avoid settlements.
Soft Engineering ( Less expensive and better for the environment)
1)Afforestation is the planting of trees on the river banks. The trees intercept the water.
2) Managed flooding, some areas are allowed to flood naturally to prevent flooding in other areas with settlements.
E.g. steep river banks (faster surface run-off), lack of vegetation (no intercepting the precipitation allowing ground to become saturated), Impermeable rocks in drainage basin (water cannot percolate through rock) and urban development in area of drainage basin.
Many areas were left without electricity and clean water supplies became contaminated leaving many without access to clean water.