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Copy of https://www.google.com/urlsa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images

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jaime jarvis

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Transcript of Copy of https://www.google.com/urlsa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images

Ancient Africa
Mali
Kush
Axum
Benin
Songhai
Zimbabwe
Founder:
Sorcerer-king Sundiata, claimed Mali was his right of inheritance, defeated Soso in 1230
-built empire after return from exile
-Epic was created of come to power with magic & him as a warrior
-Sundiata encourages acceptance of Islam
By 1235 CE: expanded to Ghana and other regions
-including most of modern state of Mali


Name for Ruler - Mansa
Capital - Niani
Sundiata
"Lion King"
-Assigned occupations to particular kin groups
- Developed social organization similar to caste system
-Destiny, no options (born into your life)
If born into family of Mansa, part of ruling dynasty (Keita), believed to be one of ruler's "tricks" to keep his family in power
-Power ended up in former slave's hands, leading to reign of ex-slave, Sakura
-lead the way for Sundiata's nephew, Mansa Musa
-Led during prosperous time of gold trade, & led Mali to great riches
-1324 ce, set out on pilgrimage to Mecca with 500 slaves (went through Cairo, randomly handing out gold)
--handed out so much that the value of gold went down by 25% at markets
-Introduced entire kingdom to Islam, making one of 1st muslim states in Northern Africa
-Incorporated laws of Qoran to justice system
-Cities Timbuktu & Gao become- international learning centers of Islamic faith & culture
-Built libraries & mosques
Mansa Musa
Downfall of Mali
-Strong relationships between religion & politics
-Death of strong leader, Mansa Musa in mid 14th century, weakened kingdom
-Trade network starts to unravel
-1430 ce group of Berbers seized territory (including Timbuktu)
-The wealth & power of kingdom was quickly swept into the next great empire during late 15th c. (The Songhay/Songhai)
-Major cities: Meroe, Kerma, Napata
-Located in Nubian desert, south of Egypt along upper Nile River Valley
-2nd millennium bce - 4th century ce
-Kushite kingdom had written language based on Egyptian hieroglyphics (not fully understood/interpreted today), art, burials, and architecture
-Location provides strategic communication & trade routes in kingdom
-Farmed the valley & had irrigation systems
-Mined minerals of high-quality stone for trade
-Introduced iron metallurgy to region
-region produced most gold (at time) than anywhere else in world
Early Kush Period: 1700-1500 bce
-economy relied on trade of exotic African goods with Egypt
-Acted as the middle man; passed goods from south to Egypt, making them vital to the people north
-City of Kerma controlled trade routes from south to north
-Arts & Architecture reveal sophisticated society, innovative craftsmen & constant assimilation of new artistic techniques from diverse lands
-Stone temples, narrative tomb wall paintings, egg-shell thin pottery with geometric patterns, granite & bronze statues of gods & kings conveying religious beliefs
Downfall
-4th century ce
-persistent attack of nomads from south & east
-emerging Axum kingdom eclipsed/over shadowed Kush
-100 bce- 650 ce
-Northeast region if Ethiopia, on high plateau next to Red sea
-Location provides major center for international trade

-Known for Obelisk & as early center of Christianity in Africa
-Became one of holiest cities of Ethiopian Orthodox Church
-Wealthy & prestigious, traded ivory, exotic animal skins, & gold
-Rulers used new found power from trade to build centralized state
-by 3rd century ce, had currency (1st city in Africa to manufacture coins)
Ethiopian Christianity
Retain Christian rituals but reflects interest of Africans

1. believe large host of evil spirits populat world
-carry or wear amulets and charms for protection
--old example: eye of horus


Downfall
-Decline began in 7th century, with rise of Islam
-Reorganized trade routes = exclusion of Christian Axum & cut off from Christian world
-Remained Christian kingdom by denying Axumite Muslims right to build mosques in city
-Relations with Christin world restored during Portuguese arrival
-
Christianity prominant until fall out during Socialist Revolution of 1974

-West Africa
-Did not speak Bantu language
-Strong centralized city-state with significant military & economic power
-Never dominated by Europe
Benin well known for magnificent scultpures with human faces and figures of imp. people for early sub-Saharan Africa
-Kings=Obas
-Kings claim divine ancestry
-Controlled trade efficiently
-Obas rule by dividing land into fiefs (held by officials appointed by king himself)
-Oba is absolute ruler of spiritual affairs & temporal ones (could speak with ancestors)
-11th century
-Converted to Islam
-Capital is Gao, under Sunni Ali (15th century), conquered Timbuktu & Jenne in Ghana & expanded
-Became mix of Islamic, native-pagan elements
-Conquered by muslims from Morocco in 16th century
Ghana
-founded between 4th and 5th c.
-to find protection from camel-riding nomadic raids
-flourished from 900-1100 CE
-military kingdom of Soninke people
-Principle state of West Africa (not related to Modern Ghana
-area the size of Texas
-located in modern Mali and Mauritania




1. means dwelling of the chief
2. 5th-6th c: occupies modern states of Zimbabwe and Mozambique
-featured wooden structures
3. 9th c. begin stone work on city
--by 13th c. construction of Great Zimbabwe complete
--city of stone towers, palaces, and public buildings
--during 15th c. pop. of about 18,000
4. Kings control and tax trae: organize flow of gold, ivory, slaves, and local products
5.
**** Indian Ocean trade generated wealth that financed the organization of city states on the coast and large kingdoms in interior

- Fortress & 'temple' (elliptically shaped enclosure)
-Economy based on gold trade
-Center of vast empire

-Center of trade network, gold high point from 1400-1500 ce
-Zimbabwe Abandoned
a. due to lack of gold due to depletion & low price in world
b. also drought, failing agriculture damages pastoral economy
-Wealth came from cattle & gold
Power of Gold and Ghana's military
1. Name: Ghana means "war Chief" in Soninke
2 named by Muslim traders
---Islam spread by interactions
3. Gold trade!!!
-Muslims flock to merchant caravans traveling across Sahara to Ghana
4. Kings gain gold from south (not their mines)
+++take control of trade and earn wealth from taxing items
5. Koumbi-Saleh (Capital)
-commercial center from 9th to 12th c.
-Descriptiosn According to Arab chronicler: Al Bakri ("Spanish"muslim)
-describe building of mosques and qadi's present
-Ghana had 200,000 warriors, 40,000 carried bows and arrows
-Royal army: standing army of 1,000
Government and Economy
kingship: hereditary through matrilineal line
collected taxes (traders in north also paid taxes)
income from conquered areas
control trade routes: gold, slaves,hides, ivory, copper, silver, metal goods, horses, fruit, cloth and salt
Pack animals: camels key
Gold from Ghana the basis of trade between Med. and East
King also nicknamed the "king of gold"/ Kaya-Maghan
1. Islam spreads in West Africa
a. 10th c. Kings of Ghana covert to gain trade
-no attempt ot force subjects to trade
b. Muslim states in N. Africa
Sufis establish new communities of faith around trade routes (woohhh who could have seen that coming)
Converts mixed indigenous religious practices with Islam
c. Decline
Almoravid dynasty of Morocco waged Holy War with Berbers against Ghana (forced conversion)
Almoravid cattle degrade ecology
Weak due to raids and wars with neighbors
KIngdom of Mali: Keita kings will dominate Ghana
1. Bantu settlements on east coast
2. spoke Swahili language (mix of Bantu and Arab language) near great lakes in southeast Africa {Tanzania, Congo, Kenya, Rwanda}
-Still is official language
-Through interaction, language has transformed over time by combining aspects of other languages (German, Arabic, French, & English)
3. by 10th c.: Attract Muslim merchants
4. obtain gold, slaves, ivory, and exotic local goods from interior to trade for pottery, glass, and textiles from Persia, India, and China
Swahili City-States
Intro: Effects of Early African migrations
1. by 1000 CE: Bantu speaking people settle in most parts of AFrica (sout of the equator)
2. by 1000 CE: most migrations complete
3. Early results of migration
a. spread of agri. and hearding excluding deserts and dense rain forest
-growth of agri displaces hunters and gatherers
-absorbed into agri communities
b. by 500 BCE: iron metallurgy mastered
c. dietary staples: yams, sorghum, millet, and some, such as Khoi, adopt cattle domestication
d. rise in populations (shocking!!!)

Bananas in Africa!!!
1. Intro from migraton surges
2. 1st dom. in South Africa from Indian Ocean trade
-specifically: from Malay seafarers (modern Indonesia)
3. Early banana cultivation on Madagascar from 300-500 CE
-Malay seafarers
-also brought other staples (Asian yams, taro, chickens, and cult. traditions)
-Malaysian still spoken in Madagascar
-bananas make jump to mainland

Bantu and Forest People
1. Central African forest people: sometimes known as pygmies
2. Before dev. of agri communities: used by Bantu as guides and as environmental experts
3. As pop grows it is harder for forest people
-some integrate and others retreat into forest
-provide forest products in exchange for tools
Gen. Political org.
1. Stateless/ Segmentary soc.
-kinship groups without elab. hierarchy/bureaucracy
-villages with pop around 100
-patriarchy with a chief

2. Districts form: based on ethnic loyalties
3. Early villages: Jenne-Jeno

a. middle of Niger River (modern Jenne in Mali)
b. emerged in center of iron production
c. extensive trade network
-by 8th c. principal community crossroad for West Africa
d. has legacy of urban development
4. Local kingdoms emerge by 1000 CE:
-pop. growth led to conflicts between cites
-Benin and Ife in forested West are good examples of kingdoms
-they were well developed city-states with court and urban residents


Kingdom of Kongo
1. most active pol. dev.
-Basin of Congo River (Zaire River)
2. By 1000, pop. pressures an mil. challenges
3. By 1200, conflicts led to reg. org
4. Participate in trade network
-copper, raffia cloth (use leaves of raffia tree),
nzimba shells
5. Central gov't
-kings and officials
-6 provincial admin led by governors: supervise subordinate officials
-villages still ruled by chiefs
-Kongo most tightly centralized
6. Effective org. from 14th c. to 17th c.
-Portuguese slave trade will undermine authority
-kinships will survive but rest will fall
Islam Arrives!!!
1. through trade: overland trans-Saharan camel caravans brought Islam East
-East encountered Islam from Indian Ocean sea lanes
2. Camels
-quicken pace of travel
-from Arabia by way of Egypty and Sudan by 7th BCE
-late century BCE: special camel saddle took advantage of animal's strenghth
-increasing replaces donkey and horse
3. Arabs conq teeritory in 7th and 8th c.: introduce Islam and expand commerce
-Founded trade centers in Sub-Sahara an West Africa
Salt mines of Ghana
+++importance of Mali: est. tradition of centralized gov't and esured Islam's prominence in West Africa
1. 11th-12th c. tremendous wealth in East Africa
2. powerful city-state develop
(ex. Mogadishu, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mozambique)
3. Undergo impressive transformations
-at first used wood and dried mud for structures
-Increased wealth: by 12th . construct large buildings of coral
-By 15th c. build stone mosques and public buildings
Kilwa
1. 1 of busiest city-states in East Africa
2. 800-1000 CE: limited trade
3. 1100-1200: import pottery and stoneware from interiar and rely more on agri. (not just on fishing)---pop. booms
4. Early 1300's: Prosperous and erect stone buildings
5. import silk, cotton, perfume and pearls from India
6. used copper coins to faciliatate trade
7. 1300-1505: Portuguese have mult. attacks on city
8. Ibn Battuta (Moroccan Muslim traveler) visits in 1331 adn reports Muslim scholars from Arabia and Persia live in Kilwa and regularly consult rulers


Great mosque of Kilwa is oldest mosque in East Africa
Crash course!!
African culture and Society
1. By 11th c. Africa has enormous diversity
2. sub-sahara spoke 800 diff. languages
3. wide variety of economies (hunting and gathering, fishing, pasteuralism, urban dev., long dist. trade
4. Social classes
-kingdoms an city-states dev. clearly defined classes
-small states: keep kinship groups
++have aristocrats and religious leaders
++most do not recogn. private prop.= land is communal
++male head of families jointly govern villages

Social and Gender relations
1. gender determines work roles
2. special skills carefully guarded
-ex. ironworking highly prestigious
-passed to heirs
-secrets of turning ores into useful objects
-blacksmiths ofen hold community leadership positions because of this skill
3. women of blacksmith familes often learn prestigious skill of a potter
--prestigious because turn ingredients into useful products

Women's Roles
1. men monopolize public life
2. Women: honored as sources of life
-some make way to public positions
-others influence public affairs
3. females are merchants and involved in long-distance trade
4. some engage in combat and organize all female units
5. Arrival of Islam
a. didn't change status for women as dramatically as other regions
b. lack of changes since Islam didn't become popular for several centuries
c. A few upper-class Muslim women did wear veils and led secluded lives
d. most women freely socialize
**Islam did very little to curtail opportunities avalable to women
Age Grades/sets
1.Through historical linguistic analysis, believe sets arose in early days of agriculture in the Sudan
2. Perform age appropriate tasks appropriate
3. *** ofen form bonds that cross family and kin lines
---- effectively establish social ties
Slavery
1. most captives of war, some due to
debts, suspected witches, or criminals
2. Most work in agri., construction, mines, or ports
3. Major source of personal wealth since few groups believed in private property
--build wealth through agricultural production
Slave Trade
1. after 9th c. expansion of trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trade: stimulaes traffic in African slaves
2. Muslim merchants see demand that eastern Europe, where slaves used to be gathered, can't keep up with
3. Slave demand increases and large scale rulers make war on smalle kin-based societies in search of captives
4. Ibn Battuta (14th c.) crossed Sahara in caravan that had 600 slaves bound for N. Africa and Med.
5.
Smaller than Atlantic trade but high demand for Muslim slave trade created networks for future trade used in Atlantic trade

Zanj Revolt
1. records of slave trade scarce
2. Lengthy uprising
a. Zanj (means black slave from Swahili coast)
b. By 7th c: Zanji slave labor cond. in Southern Mesopotamia difficult
-working sugarcane and salt mines
c. mount several revolts the Muslim authority snuffs out
d. 869 CE: rebel slave Ali bin Muhammad org 15,000 Zanji and capture Basra (Mesop city)
-est. rebel state
-Abbasid rulers focus to end rebellion in 879 CE
-by 883: revolt crushed, Ali dead, other rebels executed
e. Slavery pominent feature in Muslim society

African Relgion
a. most areas believe in Creator god
-single creater god from days of agri. on Sudan
-male all powerful deity created world and some bleieve still interacts in human affairs
b. lesser deites and spirits
-recogn. many lesser deities (sun, wind, trees)
-often involved in workings of the world (provide benefits or destruction)
-focus on ancestor veneration and worship
-rituals focus on honoring deities, spirits, and ancestors
c. Rituals, prayers, animal sacrifice, ceremonies for life events (birth, circumcision, marriage, death)
d. diviners
-like other socieities: recognize relligious specialist
-through their innate abilites or training they have power to mediate between human and supernatural world
e. Relgion not as concerned with theology as other parts of world
---focus on practical buisness of human experiences
****strongely emphasize morality and proper behavior
--failure leads to disorder and ensures misfortune
Arrival of Christianity and Islam

1. Both from foreigners
2. Early Christianity in N. Africa
-reaches Egypt and N. Africa by 1st c.
-Alexandria becomes prominant city for Early Christian theology
3. Alexandria home of St. Augustine!!


Islam

1. appealed to ruling elites and merchants
--at first for business but become serious about religion
2. Still reflects local interests: where amulets and protections from evil spirits
3. Islam and gender relations
-Ibn Battuta visits Mali and offended by women having open conversations with men (not their husbands)
---his hosts pay him no heed
Full transcript