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American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, political activist, author and lecturer
One of the fathers of modern linguists
Created the theory of generative grammar,
He has also written on war, mass media, and politics.
Biography From 1945, studied philosophy and linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania.
PhD in linguistics from University of Pennsylvania in 1955.
1956, appointed full Professor at MIT, Department of Linguistics and Philosophy.
1966, Ferrari P. Ward Chair; 1976, Institute Professor; currently Professor Emeritus
Contribution Linguistics: Transformational grammars, Generative grammar, Language aquisition
Computer Science: Chomsky hierarchy, Chomsky Normal Form, Context Free Grammars
Psychology: Cognitive Revolution (1959), Universal grammar Noam Chomsky’s approach to the study of language is known as universal grammar: the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. In turn, there is an assumption that all languages have a common structural basis. This set of rules is known as universal grammar
an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans
attempts to explain language acquisition in general, not describe specific languages
proposes a set of rules intended to explain language acquisition in child development
Contribution in Politics After the publication of his book on linguistics, he became a prominent critic of Veitnam War and sincwe then continued to publish books of political criticism. he has become well known for his critiques on U.S foreign policy, state capitalism and mainstream news media. his media criticism has included Manufactured Consent, The Political Economy of Mass Media. Universal grammar Book Many of his ideas appeared in his first Revolutionary book, Sayntatic Structure, published in 1957.
In this book he explains importance of creativity in language and introduces transformational grammar.
Every person has an innate ability to acquire language as he hears it at its right age
.He presented the new ideas of generative and transformational generative grammer which revolutionized the scientific study of language.
Behaviorism B.F Skinner
He argued that children imitate what they see and hear,and that children learn from punishment and reinforcement. Nativist Prespective chomsky's problem with behaviorism He argues that humans are biologically programmed to gain knowledge
Chomsky proposed that all humans have a language acqusition device (LAD). The LAD contains knowledge of grammatical rules common to all languages i-e it is the neurological system in the brain that facilitates language development Other related Concepts The LAD also allows children to understand the rules of whatever language they are listening to.
UG Is the theory Noam Chomsky that there are rules of language that all humans are born language that all humans are born with, they are internal, not imitated.
Transformational grammar is grammar that transforms a sentence.
Surface structures are words that are actually written.
Deep structure is the underlying message or meaning of a sentence. What is cognitive code? Infant is born with complete world knowledge Example of an Infant... infant counts
infants have a concept of objects
infants have physics concept
infants have language
Further Classification comparison between young and old..
Youngsters learn an extreamly complex system(language) effortlessly
Youngsters learn an extreamly complex system(language) in a short amount of time.
Youngsters do not need instructions to learn their mother tongue
infants do not hear grammar; they hear a string of words and infer the syntatic rules language.
infants often hear ungrammatical sentences, yet they learn the grammar this theory explains why childern can quickly understand and then use there language creativity and correctly without being formally taught or 'knowing' the rules. Conclusion so. it is important to remember that infants are born with: a universal; grammar (UG)- a data base of grammar
language acqusition device(LAD)
UG and LAD are:
unique to humans
universal for humans
presented by ...
Noor Ul Ain
Sidra Naeem THANK YOU...