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James Wing

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of Transport


The Animated History of Aviation (UVaviation, 2012) presents a number of innovators who greatly assisted establishing the aviation world. When a bird flaps its wings it generates power and when an aircraft produces thrust it creates work. Evidently the creation of aircraft came from the study of birdlife. The Complete Works (2002, davinci.com).

"You haven't seen a tree until you've seen its shadow from the sky."

Earhart Online (2013, Earhart Quotes)
Leonardo Da Vinci.com (Da Vinci Designs, 2012)
Crash Statistics
Statistically flying is a safer alternative to motor vehicle transport,
however a minority of airline commuters continue to be concerned over the prospect of an aircraft crash. Recently one of the most iconic accidents was in the Hudson River in 2009. The Airbus A320 was struck by a flock of birds on takeoff. The crew successfully guided the aircraft into the Hudson River and remarkably all 155 onboard survived. American News (2009, Landers)

Environmental Impact
Environmental impact from aircraft
emissions is continuing to be a serious
issue for aviation. Approximately 2% of
all human created Carbon Emissions are
from aircraft. Facts and Figures (2012, ATSB). This means an alternative must be sought.
Aircraft manufacturer Airbus believes that the industry must concentrate on technical advancements, focusing on population and demographics conditions while respecting the environment. Future of Airbus (2013, Future of Airbus). One of the current developments which aims at the future of air travel is the creation of Virgin Galactic. Where will the future lead? The sky is the limit.
[Strategic Analysis of Aircraft Accidents, 2008]
(2013, Sustainable Aviation)

Space Shuttles
"One small step for man. One giant leap for man kind"

One of the most famous quotes in history, from astronaut Neil Armstrong on July 20, 1969 as he departed his shuttle Apollo 11 to walk on the moon. While it was not the first space mission, it was the turning point which inspired the world and gave belief that space travel was possible and that we are no longer confined to just the Earth

Crash Statistics
The first space shuttle flights had a one in nine chance of tragedy. One of the most horrific was the Challenger disaster on January 28th 1986 in which the shuttle exploded on live TV, killing all astronauts on board in front of millions of TV viewers.

Thankfully, shuttles are now ten times safer as a result of the safety improvements after the Challenger and also the 2003 Columbia accident where seven astronauts died.

The odds of a catosptrophic failure are now only one in ninety and as we look to the future where space travel will become more common, these odds will only improve.
Environmental Impacts
During a take off a shuffle uses 660000 pounds of solid fuel and 45000 gallons of liquid hydrogen per minute, the equivalent amount of energy a person would use in an entire year! A frequent by-product of the launch is hydrochloric acid which in turn causes acid rain

Once in orbit however it uses more environmentally friendly hydrogen fuel cells

As a result of the space launches at the Kennedy Space Centre, NASA will spend US$96 million to clean up the toxic fumes left behind
Ships and Boats
Accident Statistics, (FAA, 2008)

The first steam railway was introduced from 1854 between Melbourne and Port Melbourne. After this the railway system in the other colonies also developed rapidly. At the beginning most of the track and rolling stock were imported but by the 1880’s most of the things were made locally. Initially the private companies operated the railway system but eventually the government in the colonies took over. Steam locomotion was used until diesel locomotives began in 1950s. Steam locomotives are still available for tourists’ trips in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania.
Australian government(2008, early days of Australian rail transport)
The responsibility for rail safety in Australia is shared by the government and the railway industry. According to the rail crash statistics rail transport is one of the safest ways to travel. However, the below chart show the heavy rail occurrences with injuries by person type in Victoria.
Crash statistics
The future of space travel is closer than you may think.

Virgin Galactic are now offering the public trips to space for US$250'000 with confirmation that they are on track to commence commercial service in 2014.

Becoming an astronaut is no longer just a childs dream, with space travel looking to be more accessible and affordable than ever before, thanks to the efforts of entrepreneurs such as Richard Branson.

Space- the final frontier, will one day be our new playground.

State government authorities in Australia do different things to develop rail transport in each state. For instance the department of planning transport and infrastructure in South Australia are introducing electric trains to limit the duration and inconvenience caused to customers due to various problems in trains running on diesel. This will affect all of Adelaide metropolitan line.
Moreover, Australian rail development authorities recently announced two exciting projects to develop the rail industry in Sydney and Brisbane.
Extension of the Sydney light rail network
Brisbane cross river rail project

Environmental impact
Throughout the world rail transport is recognised as environmentally friendly. According to the Australian Rail Association greenhouse gas emissions per passenger kilometre for rail transport is up to five times less than car transport. Only 2.6% of Australia's transport greenhouse gas emissions are attributable to rail. Majority of trains in Australia are fuelled by either diesel or electricity. Compared to diesel, electricity is more environmentally friendly. Local governments still finding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For instance they encourage people to use public transport like trains run by electricity to travel to work, invest money to facilitate non carbon modes of transport. Encourage to use trams throughout the city and provide access to take bicycles in public transport.
Australasian Centre for the Governance and Management of Urban Transport (GAMUT) (2007, page 39)
The Complete Works. (2013). Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://www.leonardoda-vinci.org.

UvuAviation, (2012), Retrieved August 25, History of Aviation 2013, Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com

ASTB, (2013), Aviation Safety 2013, Retrieved August 25, 2013 from http://www.atsb.gov.au/media/29498/aviation_safety_rev.pdf.

Planecrashinfo.com, (2013), Statistics 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from http://planecrashinfo.com/cause.htm.

abc.net, (2013) Hudson River Plane Crash. Retrieved August 28, 2013 from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-01-17/investigators-probe-hudson-river-plane-crash/269126.

Janbransetter09, (2009), Retrieved August 27, 2013, Hudson River A320 Crash, Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com

Qantas.com, (2013) Biofuel Flight. Retrieved August 28 2013, from http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/mar-2012/5382/global/en.

SunriseOn7, (2013), Retrieved August 29, 2013, Qantas Biofuel Flight, Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com

Airbus.com, (2012), Airbus Future. Retrieved August 31, 2013 from http://www.airbus.com/innovation/future-by-airbus/.

The first automobile was founded in 1769 which had a steam engine.
This was the first form of transport around town, other than horses or by foot.
In 1806 a combustion engine was created which also led to fuel introduction in 1885.
The following year the first modern automobile was invented by a German by the name of Carl Benz.
Crash Statistics
The road toll for 2012 showed that sadly 370 people died on NSW roads, an increase of six people from 2011.
This is the second lowest road toll since 1932, despite an increase in 2011 which 365 people died on our roads.

The majority of deaths on the road in 2012 were among motorcyclists, passengers and pedestrians.
• Motorcycle user deaths were up by 18 per cent to 60, compared with 51 in 2011 an increase of nine
• Passenger deaths were up by 11 percent to 81, compared with 73 in 2011 an increase of seven
• Pedestrian deaths were up by 10 percent to 54, compared with 49 in 2011 an increase of five
Future of the Automobile's
There are 3 types of flying automobiles, some that are due to “apparently” hit the markets in 2021.
The Urban Aeronautics X-Hawk, much like a two seater helicopter it had its first test run in 2009.
Moller Skycar M400, has vertical landing and take-off abilities but still having satellite navigation problems.
Terrafuguia TF-X, in May this year they announced that the TF-X would be the first fully autonomous flying car with rechargeable batteries and a speed of 500 miles per hour to be released in 2021.

Environmental Impacts
Our cars have a large impact in the environment around us that we don’t notice 99% of the day. Examples are greenhouse gasses, air quality, and use of natural resources and there’s obviously a noise factor with some cars now days. The manufacture, operation and maintenance of vehicles impacts the environment by using non-renewable resources like metals, plastics and fuel. The water quality is becoming a problem with all the oils and chemicals getting amongst our rivers, creeks and eventually the sea. There’s greenhouse gases amongst many other things that are affecting our beautiful environment.
Transport safety Victoria(2013,page10)
Department of infrastructure transport regional development and local government (2009, page 19)
Government of South Australia (2013, Rail Revitalisation)
Flashback entertainment (2008)
DPTI south Australia (2013)
(Visionairbus, 2013)
(Sunriseon7, 2012)
(usanews1, 2009)

Newcomen Steam Engine, 1747
Model of a Newcomen Steam Engine, 1856
Thomas Newcomen. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/412902/Thomas-Newcomen
Newcomen steam engine. [Photograph]. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/123095/Newcomen-steam-engine-1747
Newcomen steam engine. [Photograph]. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from
futurepundit.com (2003) Retrieved August 29 2013 from http://www.futurepundit.com/archives/000940.html
wikipedia.org (2013) Retrieved August 28 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11
collectspace.com (2011) Retrieved August 28 2013 from http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum30/HTML/000974.html
inhabitat.com (2011) Retrieved August 29 2013 from

virgingalactic.com (2013) Retrieved August 29 2013 from http://www.virgingalactic.com/news/item/virgin-galactic-flexes-spaceshiptwos-unique-feather-mechanism-in-second-supersonic-flight/
In the year of 1712, Thomas Newman invented the first steam engine. The first ship to use this newly invented steam engine was the S.S. Savannah, which was the first ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean with the aid of a steam engine.
The S.S. Savannah departed from the U.S in May of 1819 and arrived in liverpool after 29 days. Even though the ship only used it's steam engine for roughly 12 per cent of the trip, the era of the steamship began (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013).
Environmental Impact
Crash Statistics
Reference list
Rail Transport
Australian government. (2008). Early days of Australian Rail Transport. Retrieved September 08, 2013, from http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/railways-in-australia
Australian Transport Safety Bureau. (2011). Rail statistics. Retrieved September 08, 2013, from http://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-statistics.aspx
Australian government. Transport. Retrieved September 08, 2013, from http://australia.gov.au/topics/transport
Australian Railway Historical Society NSW Division. Gallery. Retrieved September 09, 2013, from http://www.arhsnsw.com.au/gallery.htm
Australian Transport Safety Bureau. (2012). Annual Report 2011-12.Retrieved from http://www.atsb.gov.au/media/4020660/atsb_annual_report_2011-12_web.pdf
Australasian Centre for the Governance and Management of Urban Transport (GAMUT). (2007). Investigation of the Greenhouse Impacts of Different Transport Modes in Australian Cities. Retrieved September 09,2013, from http://www.abp.unimelb.edu.au/files/miabp/5greenhouse-impacts.pdf
Department of infrastructure and transport . (2013). History of Rail in Australia. Retrieved September 08, 2013, from http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/rail/trains/history.aspx.
Department of infrastructure transport regional development and local government. (2009). Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian Transport :projection to 2020. Retrieved September 12,2013, from http://www.bitre.gov.au/publications/2009/files/wp_073.pdf
DPTI South Australia. (2013, June 19). Stay switched on Adelaide (video file). Retrieved from
Flashback entertainment. (2008, February 11). Track record: history of Australia’s railway preview(video file).Retrieved from
Government of South Australia. (2013). Rail revitalisation. Retrieved September 09, 2013, from http://www.infrastructure.sa.gov.au/RR
Mondaq. (2013). Australian train development. Retrieved September 09, 2013, from http://www.mondaq.com/australia/x/235284/cycling+rail+road/Australian+rail+developments
Transport safety Victoria. (2013). 2012 Annual incident statistics HEAVY RAIL. Retrieved from http://www.transportsafety.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/87139/2012-Annual-incident-statistics-Heavy-rail.pdf
Transport safety Victoria. (2013). 2012 annual incidents statistics. Retrieved Septemebr 09,2013, from http://www.transportsafety.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/87139/2012-Annual-incident-statistics-Heavy-rail.pdf
Automobile. (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved September 9 , 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Transport for New South Wales (Last Updated: June 11, 2013)
Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA). Retrieved Sept 09, 2013,
from http://roadsafety.transport.nsw.gov.au

New Flying Car Design Unveiled (Published on May 9, 2013).
Teaching grammar in context [Video file]. Video
posted to http://www.youtube.com

Impact of Cars to the Enviroment Retrived Sept 09, 2013
Royal Automobile Club of Victoria (RACV).
From http://www.racv.com.auc

Gran,E.A.(2009).Somali Maritime Enterprise:Ancient Seafarers of the Erythraean Sea.[Video]. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com
InternetGLGroup.(2012). Zero-Emission Container Feeder Vessel. [Video]. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com
Foxnewstest.(2013). Designing and testing the ships of the future.[Video]. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com
As shipping is responsible for transpoting approximately 90 percent of the world trade, it is extremely important that something is done about the impacts shipping has on the environment, especially as carbon dioxide emissions are almost double the amount of airlines, and believed to be increasing (The Guardian, 2007)
The Guardian. (2007). C02 output from shipping twice as much as airlines. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/mar/03/travelsenvironmentalimpact.transportintheuk
The future of ships evolves alot around becoming more eco-friendly, reducing their carbon footprint. The ship in the image below is Europe's STX Eoseas. It is a five hulled pentamarancruise shipsaid that will run off LNG-Diesel combined with solar and wind energy to reduce fuel consumption levels. This vessel aims to reduce power consumption by up to 50 per cent (Raunek, 2011).
Marine Insight, (2011). STX Europe's Eoseas. [Photograph]. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.marineinsight.com/sports-luxury/futuristic-shipping/10-future-ships-that-would-change-the-face-of-the-shipping-industry/#comments
The Guardian. (2007). C02 output from shipping twice as much as airlines. [Photograph]. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/mar/03/travelsenvironmentalimpact.transportintheuk
U.Kauthorities conducted a study and it was found that navigational errors and failures played a significant part in over half of the merchant shipping accidents in between the years of 2002 to 2005. Further investigation into this matter indicated that the number of accidents are increasing and almost 60 per centof these accidents were caused from human error (Wikipedia).
Wikipedia. (2013). E-Navigation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Navigation
Wikipedia. (2013). E-Navigation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-Navigation
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