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Green Economy and Renewable Energy

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Olga Slobodova

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of Green Economy and Renewable Energy

The Product
Cosmin Stefan Negoescu
Hasmik Tadevosyan
Olga Slobodova

Green Economy and Renewable Energy
1. Green Economy and what it is
2. Renewable Energy and it's types
3. Green Economy Examples
Outline
http://blog.processindustryforum.com/energy/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-solar-energy/
http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/
http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Full_Report.pdf
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/index_en.htm
http://www.about-alternative-energy.com/wind-turbines.html
http://www.whirlopedia.com/advantages-disadvantages-wind-energy.htm
http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/wind/wind-energy/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-wind-energy
http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/windpower
http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/Advantages_Disadvantages_BiomassEnergy.php
http://science134.tripod.com/id9.html
http://esolarnews.com/How_Bio_Energy_Works.html
http://prezi.com/yqamjcwrbvi0/renewable-energy/
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.htm
http://www.dougrye.com/advantages-disadvantages-geothermal-energy.html
http://topdiysolarpanels.net/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-geothermal-energy/
http://earthsheat.blogspot.fr/2012/12/geothermal-energy-main-advantages-and.html
Bibliography
Green Economy : Success Stories
Resources
Wind Power
Energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as:
sunlight
wind
biological processes
tides
waves
geothermal heat
Renewable energy
http://www.renewablegreenenergypower.com/solar-energy-facts-solar-energy-alone-can-power-the-world/
http://www.solarbuzz.com/facts-and-figures/markets-growth/market-share

Solar energy
Photovoltaic panels
converts solar radiation into usable direct current electricity
The total energy produced by a solar panel depends on factors like type of collector, the prevailing weather conditions, the angle of the collector and the level of sunlight.
A small PV system is capable of providing enough AC electricity to power a single home
http://www.yoursunyourenergy.com/Photovoltaics-and-Architecture-.htm
http://www.proenviro.com/UK/services/renewables/photovoltaic_systems_pv.htm
Solar thermal collectors
converts solar radiation into thermal energy
http://www.househeatingsystemsv.com/solar-heating-systems/
http://www.gvskills.com/sections/2
solar hot water panels
solar air heater
Solar architecture
Integration of solar panel technology with modern building techniques
Orientation of a building to the sun
Design of spaces with natural lighting and heating thanks to windows orientation
Materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties
http://www.solaleya.com/ourmodels-domespace.htm
http://www.ecochunk.com/tag/solar-powered-home/
1.
2.
3.
Advantages
No pollution, no green house gases
Free, once installed
Infinite supply
Decentralization of power
New jobs
Avoidance of politics and price volatility
Disadvantages
Dependency on the weather and geographical placement
Inefficiency
High cost
Hard to be stored
Conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as
using wind turbines to make electrical power
windmills for mechanical power
windpumps for water pumping or drainage
sails to propel ships
http://mexicotoday.org/article/mexico-wind-power-sets-new-generation-record
http://newenergynews.blogspot.fr/2014/01/offshore-wind-is-one-of-cnns-coolest.html
Advantages
Disadvantages
No pollution, no green house gases
Free once installed
Infinite supply
Decentralization of power
New jobs
Avoidance of politics and price volatility
Do not take a lot of space
The used space can be shared for agriculture purposes
Inability to control the wind
Noise
Pollution during production
Damage to birds (now built with regards to birds migration paths)
Small efficiency
Visual site
Interfere with television signals
Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.
Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy.
As a fuel it may include:
wood
wood waste
straw
manure
sugarcane
and many other byproducts from a variety of agricultural processes.
Bioenergy
Application
Electricity generation from biomass
Wood residues in the US
Agricultural waste in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks)
Animal husbandry residues (poultry litter) in the UK
Biofuel
Biofuel
Biomass is converted to convenient energy form containing substances in three different ways:
thermal conversion
chemical conversion
biochemical conversion
Ethanol
Biodiesel
Green diesel
Biofuel gasoline
Vegetable oil
Bioethers
Biogas
Syngas
Types of biofuels:
Advantages
Disadvantages
Relatively clean
Abundant and renewable
Reduce waste landfills
Methane emissions
Require more fertile lands, demanded for growing food
Inefficient
Expensive
Hydropower
Converting gravitational force of falling or flowing water into useful form of energy
Mechanical
Hydroelectricity
Types of hydropower stations:
Dams
Pumped-storage
Run-of-the-river
Tide
Underground
Underwater
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hydroelectric_dam.svg
http://webecoist.momtastic.com/2008/11/09/hydroelectric-wave-tidal-power/
Geothermal energy
No pollution, no greenhouse gases
Low maintenance
Constant supply
Minimal land requirement
Efficient
Advantages
Disadvantages
Potential release of harmful and hazardous chemicals
Specific location
Cannot be transferred over long distances
High upfront cost

Overall mandatory target of 20% for the proportion of renewable energy figuring in gross domestic consumption by 2020.
Minimum target of 10% for biofuels for 2020.

By 2011 the EU realized a 12.4% share of energy from renewable sources.
EU Directive 2009/28/EC
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0016:0062:EN:PDF
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0016:0062:EN:PDF
Global recession has brought to the surface multiple chronic structural flaws in the global economy:
2.5 billion people suffer from poverty
60% of the global resources used unsustainably
Growth in income inequality
A new concept with an alternative vision has emerged, promoting sustainability and economic growth in the same time
Green Economy was possible because:
The governments, companies and general public started to better acknowledge our planetary limits
The global recession has led to a reconsideration of worldwide economic principles

Why Green Economy
What is Green Economy
Its general purpose is to sustain and improve the well-being of 3 vital domains:
Economic
Environmental
Social
Promotes institutional, regulatory and tax reforms
Mainly, Green Economy focuses on 6 sectors:
Renewable energy
Green buildings
Sustainable transport
Water management
Waste management
Land management

Changes in industry and market structure
Job losses
Some countries lack in green technology know-how
Huge gaps in terms of financial development, between countries all over the world
Political influence of persons holding interests in the fossil-fuel based energy

Downsides
There is an urgent need for the countries to increase their investment in natural and human capital, reduce carbon emissions, adopt innovative and resource efficient technologies, create green jobs as well as promote sustainable development.


Ontario accounts for roughly 25% of Canada’s total energy generation
It is facing a significant capacity problem
The Ontario Power Authority (OPA) develops the province’s energy plan such as the Long Term Energy Plan 2010-2030

Canada - Green Energy and Economy Act
In October 2009, the was launched Bill 150 on the Green Energy (GEA)
Foster a clean energy economy in Ontario
Increase Ontario’s share of renewable energies to 37% by 2025 which will be largely generated by hydroelectricity and wind energy, followed by solar energy and biomass.
Energy Plan is estimated to be $87 billion over the program’s life
GEA overall aims and goal
This amounts to health costs of about $3 billion
The removal of coal plants would result 79 percent reduction in CO2 emission

Coal-fire “Price”
Coal plants produce carcinogens, smog, greenhouse gases, acid rain and pollution, which causes 120.000 illnesses a year in Ontario alone
Croatia – Plastic packaging waste management
During the 1990s the quantity of packaging waste in Croatia continuously increased amounting to 320,000 tons/year
Waste Management Strategy passed in 2005 has been crucial

 More than 4.000 jobs were created in the waste management system
 An efficient waste management sector is key in the transition to a Green Economy.

Finland – Forest Diversity Program METSO
METSO enhances Southern Finland’s network of protected areas and safeguards forest
METSO aims to halt the ongoing decline in forest biotopes and species

Aims to protect over 96.000 hectares of ecologically valuable forests by establishing permanent conservation areas and making fixed term conservation contracts on private lands or by acquiring land by the State.
Moldova – Organic Agriculture
Agricultural production-30% of national GDP and 70% of exports.
Converting agricultural land from conventional to organic farming
Organic farming ensures the restricted use of chemical and synthetic inputs, prohibition of genetically modified crops, and wide crop rotation.
Organic practices emit 35-37% less greenhouse gases than conventional practices
By this 50,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions would be saved per year compared to conventional farming.
This, seen on a large scale, would have significant impact on the carbon footprint of Moldova.

UK – Sustainable public transport – The Green Bus Fund
Supports transport operators in England to buy low carbon buses(LCEB)
LCEB target of emitting at least 30% less greenhouse gas emissions than its equivalent diesel bus of the same passenger capacity.
Funding: £30 million budget in 2009-2010 and a £15 million budget in 2010-2011.
97% of the new buses will be hybrid-electric vehicles, and the remaining 3% will be all-electric.
These new buses will reduce CO2 emissions by 16,000 tonnes a year.

France – Bonus-Malus Feebate Program for Vehicles
Bonus-Malus was introduced under the Grenelle de l’Environnement law in December 2007
It consists of a financial reward (bonus) for purchasers of environmentally friendly new cars and a financial penalty (malus) for those buying cars emitting high levels of CO2
A maximum bonus of €7,000 is awarded to purchases of cars emitting no more than 50g CO2/km
Buyers of new vehicles that emit more than 151 g CO2/km pay a penalty (malus) from € 200-3600
Thank you
Energy consumption in 2008
Full transcript