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Transformational Leadership

IPFW NUR 442 Presentation
by

Kelsey Grawcock

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of Transformational Leadership

Background
Transformational
Leadership

Caroline Castelli, Kelsey Grawcock, & Angela Miller
Transformational Leadership: What is it?
A type of leadership that enhances motivation, morale, and performance of followers using a variety of tactics & mechanisms
The leader connects his/her sense of identity and self to a project, then applies it collectively to an organization
(Bass, 1990) (Transformational Leadership)
Details
James MacGregor Burns introduced the
concept of transformational leadership
Known as one of the most influential
leadership approaches
Many often don’t realize they are acting as or
taking part of transformational leadership

(Bass, 1990) (Transformational Leadership)
Assumptions
You are following a person who inspires you
Because the leader has a vision and great passion, they will achieve great things
Things get done using extreme enthusiasm and energy

(Transformational Leadership)
Transformational Leadership Style
Passion and energy are put into work
The leader cares
The leader strives to inspire and interest
The leader challenges
The followers are a product of the transformation
Given the right situation, the leader can make major saves in big organizations

(Transformational Leadership) (Bass & Avolio, 1994)
Process
1. Develop the vision for change
2. Sell the vision to the followers
3. Find the way forward
4. Lead the charge

(Transformational Leadership)
Basic
Concepts

Four Elements of
Transformational Leadership
1. Idealized Influence
2. Inspirational Motivation
3. Intellectual Stimulation
4. Individualized Consideration

(Bass & Avolio, 1994) (Transformational Leadership)
Idealized Influence
The leader must be a positive role model to the followers through ethical behaviors, instilling pride, and gaining respect and trust
(Bass & Avolio, 1994) (Transformational Leadership)
Inspirational Motivation
Measures how much of an influence the leader has been to the followers by instilling a vision that is appealing and inspiring to all
Leaders
challenge
communicate
provide meaning
Purpose and meaning are what drive a movement forward

(Bass & Avolio, 1994) (Transformational Leadership)
Intellectual Stimulation
The leader challenges the followers by discussing assumptions, taking risks, and listening to the followers’ ideas
Stimulates and encourages
creativity
Hope to develop those who
think independently
Encourages brainstorming

(Bass & Avolio, 1994) (Transformational Leadership)
Individualized Consideration
The degree to which the leader attends to the needs of the followers, and listens to their concerns and/or needs
Communication
Important to note each individual’s contribution

(Bass & Avolio, 1994) (Transformational Leadership)
Research
Evidence

Follower Development
There is a positive impact on direct followers’ development and indirect followers’ performance .
(Dvir, Eden, Avolio, & Shamir, 2002)
Innovation & Creativity
Behaviors act as “creativity enhancing forces”
Feelings of self-efficacy lead to higher creative performance

(Gumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009)
Intrinsic Motivation
Defined as “Interest in a task for the task’s sake not for the sake of external rewards
Most important source of creativity
Enhanced interest, excitement, and meaning in tasks

(Gumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009)
Commitment
Enhanced based on the extent the leader is utilizing inspirational behaviors
Increased with intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration
Faith in a better future

(Bass, 1996)
Job Performance
Higher levels
Beneficiary contact increases motivation and performance
Leaders increase use of performance information by their followers
Contributes to higher individual and organizational performance
Leads to higher job satisfaction and lower turn-over rates

(Bellé, 2014)
Group Cohesiveness, Empowerment, & Effectiveness
There is a positive relationship between group cohesiveness, empowerment, and effectivness.
(Jung and Sosick, 2002)
Financial Aspect
“…Using the principles of partnership, equity, accountability, and ownership, leaders can create an interactive milieu that balances the roles of providers with the expectations of the community within an environment of fixed resources” (Zwingman-Bagely, 1999, p. 29).
Problems Encountered
Change
Making a compelling case for the change
Status quo must
be unacceptable
Long-term interest
depends on systemic change

(Lussier & Achua, 2012)
Inspiring Employees
Compelling vision of the future
Provide hope
Change benefits everyone

(Lussier & Achua, 2012)
Leading Transition
Empower and motivate
Overcome resistance

(Lussier & Achua, 2012)
Making It Permanent
“Old habits die hard”
Problems will reoccur
Incentive programs to sustain change

(Lussier & Achua, 2012)
Application to
Nurse Lead Role

Qualities of Transformational Nurse Leaders
The transformational “leader has a deep set of internal values and ideas and is persuasive at motivating followers to act in a way that sustains the greater good rather than their own interests.”
- James MacGregor Burns
(Doody & Doody, 2012)
Idealized Influence
strong role model
value-driven
charismatic
persuasive and confident
effective communicator

Inspirational Motivation
enthusiastic
passionate
persistent

Intellectual Stimulation
encourages
risk-taker
knowledgeable

Individualized Consideration
approachable
empathetic
supportive
effective communication
with followers (nurses)
empowers

(Doody & Doody, 2012)
Results
Leadership Development
Can leadership be taught and learnt?
Training programs
Increase in leadership practices

(Duygulu & Kublay, 2011)

References

Bass, B. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership (SuDoc D 101.2:L 46/16).
Alexandria: VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational
Dynamics, (Winter): 19-31.
Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bellé, N. (2014). Leading to make a difference: A field experiment on the performance effects of transformational
leadership, perceived social impact, and public service motivation. Journal of Public Administrative Research and Theory, 24(1), 109-136.
Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership.Harper and Row, NewYork
Doody, O., & Doody, C.M. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing practice. British Journal of Nursing, 21(20),
1212-1218.
Duygulu, S. & Kublay, G. (2011) Transformational leadership training programme for charge nurses. Journal of
Advanced Nursing 67(3), 633–642. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05507.x
Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolia, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development
and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 735-744.
Gumusluoglu, L. & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of
Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Jung, D. I., & Sosick, J.J. (2002). Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment,
cohesiveness, and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance. Small Group Research, 33(3), 313-336.
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, application, and skill development. Independence: KY: Cengage
Learning.
Salanova, M., Lorente, L., Chambel, M.J., & Martinez, I.M. (2011) Linking transformational leadership to nurses’ extra
role performance: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(10), 2256–2266. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05652.x
Transformational Leadership. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from http:/
changingminds.org/disciplines/leaders
Zwingman-Bagely, C. (1999). Transformational management style positively affects financial outcomes. Nursing
Administration Quarterly, 23(4), 29-34.


Job Satisfaction
(Salanova et al., 2011)
positively impacted
Relationships
“encourages relationships among nurses and between nurses and patients”
(Salanova et al., 2011)
Foster closer relationships
Individualized consideration
Trust, openness, communication, feedback

(Salanova et al., 2011)
Self-Efficacy
more commitment, investment (time), and effort by nurses
high self-efficacy = higher work engagement = higher nurses’ extra role performance
self-efficacy comes from close
relationship with nurse leader
and empowerment

(Salanova et al., 2011)
Patient Outcomes
the “greater good”
better outcomes due to
other positive results

(Salanova et al., 2011)
Full transcript