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Coulombic Forces and the Formation of Molecules

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Mario Martinez

on 31 August 2016

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Transcript of Coulombic Forces and the Formation of Molecules

A Quick Review...
Atomic structure is controlled by three primary forces: nuclear charge, electron shielding, and electron-electron repulsion (EER).
Molecular Formation
In order to achieve stability, atoms must often release or obtain additional electrons in an effort to fill their valence shells through formation of bonds with other atoms.
Ionic Bond Overview
Ionic bonds form whenever one atom loses an electron to another atom.
Coulombic Forces and the Formation of Molecules
"How do the Coulombic forces in the atom allow us to determine how molecular bonds will form?"
Metallic Bond Overview
Metallic bonds form between atoms of the same or different metals (shocker, I know).
Ideal Bond Length
When two atoms are bonded, there will always be an ideal bond length between them that will maximize the attractive forces and minimize the repulsive forces experienced by both atoms.
Covalent Bond Overview
Covalent bonds occur when the attractive forces of one atom are not strong enough to completely remove an electron from another atom.
Please do not say they are "sharing".
Let's do a couple of practice problems!
What kind of bond would you predict would form between potassium and iodine? Justify your selection.
AP Learning Objectives
➢ 1.10 – Justify with evidence the arrangement of the periodic table and apply periodic properties to chemical reactivity.
➢ 2.17 – Predict the type of bonding present between two atoms in a binary compound based on position in the periodic table and the electronegativity of the elements.
➢ 2.18 – Rank and justify the ranking of bond polarity on the basis of the locations of the bonded atoms in the periodic table.
➢ 5.1 – Create or use graphical representations in order to connect the dependence of potential energy to the distance between atoms and factors, such as bond order (for covalent interactions) and polarity (for intermolecular interactions), which influence the interaction strength.
These forces are referred to as Coulombic forces and are instances of inverse square laws.
The periodic table is organized in such a way as to allow properties to be repeated in a trend-like pattern.
All trends on the periodic table can be explained through application of Coulombic forces and atomic structure.
Remember that you will be expected to explain both trends and exceptions to those trends through Coulombic force and atomic structure.
The three major categories for bonds are:
ionic bonds
,
metallic bonds
, and
covalent bonds
.
What force(s) do you believe play a role in determining whether or not an ionic bond will form?
You should feel comfortable explaining and/or predicting whether or not an ionic bond will form from the perspective of both periodic trends and Coulombic forces.
This type of bond generally occurs between metals and non-metals.
Metals do not have bonds in the sense that we are used to. Instead, they display a phenomenon that we call the
electron sea
.
According to this model, the valence electrons on metallic atoms are shared amongst all atoms present in the given metal.
More on this in classes to come!
The resultant positive cation is then bonded due to its attraction to the negative anion.
Covalent bonds can be polarized depending on the relative strength of electronegativity present in each atom.
You should feel confident justifying the relative polarity of covalent bonds using periodic trends and Coulombic forces.
In a covalent bond, the electron clouds of the two atoms in question overlap, allowing electrons to freely travel betwen both atoms.
Covalent bonds typically occur between two non-metals.
One way this can be represented is through a bond length diagram, such as the one shown below.
What kind of bond would you predict would form between hydrogen and chlorine? Justify your selection.
Which molecule do you predict would have a shorter ideal bond length, hydrogen gas or oxygen gas? Justify your choice using Coulombic forces.
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