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Chapter 8 Cities and Communities

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chelsea pelton

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 8 Cities and Communities

Housing Conditions of Urban Poor
empathetic: Hull House, Jane Addams
promote social integration by providing services and support to neighborhoods
apathetic: problems associated with urban poverty
result of cultural deficiencies of the urban poor
URBAN RENEWAL (1949)
federally funded to help local govt's acquire sections of cities with slum housing and redevelop such areas
new commercial space
transportation infrastructure
high rise apartments
business community reaped most benefits
Chicago Urban Renewal
series of high rise public projects to house blacks
isolated from white community
expressway built as buffer
Chapter 8 Cities and Communities
Does Living in Cities Influence Who We Are, Who Our Friends Are, and How We Live?
Living in an Urban World
How Will Cities Change in an Increasingly Connected World?
United Nations estimated that in 2010 214 million people lived in a nation different from the one they were born
43 million immigrants in the United States alone
impact on American cities
primarily major cities
immigrants make up more than 1/4 of the population in the nation's 17 largest cities
What draws people to cities?
How do we define a city?
How Do Neighborhoods Form and Change?
Why do cities come to look the way they do?
Concern with growing levels of SOCIAL ISOLATION
lack of interpersonal connections and a decline in civic life
research in the 1990's
American's have been spending less time with family, groups, civic organizations
Communities and Networks
Urbanization affects COMMUNITY
SOCIAL TIES within cities
city dwellers draw on different networks
spread geographically
SOCIAL NETWORKS
the study of the ties that link people and groups together
online social networks changing personal and social life
The Chicago School
Sought out to test :that the form of cities can be understood as the result of a process in which different segments of the population sort themselves into the areas of the city in which they thrive: URBAN ECOLOGY
Professor Burgess
organisms adjust to their surroundings
natural process of sorting groups
first time in human history more than half of the worlds population lives in urban areas
URBAN AREAS: areas with a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile
anything else "rural"
URBANIZATION: the growth in the proportion of the population living in cities and urban areas
sociological perspective: focuses on how these spaces affect how people interact with each other
Cities pre and post industrialization
5,000 years ago cities were
small
poorly connected enclaves
wall for defense
trading centers
capitals
culture and commerce
Great Migration
African Americans leave rural south to Northern Industrial cities
Detroit: 4,000 (1900) 750,000 (1970)
shift altered the demographic, economic, and cultural landscape of cities throughout the country
racial segregation
Urban, Suburban, and Rural Patterns of Settlement
MEGACITIES: population <10 million
Mexico city, Lagos, Nigeria
MEGAREGIONS: continuous urban area containing at least two very large cities and their surrounding towns
Boston to New York Philadelphia Baltimore to D.C
50 million inhabitants
$2.5 trillion of economic output annually
White Flight
whites moving to the suburbs leaving blacks and minorities in the city
REDLINING neighborhoods (federal govt) :areas ineligible for home loans (kept blacks and minorities out of suburbs)
Shanghai: 17,863,133
Istanbul: 13,854,740
Karachi (Pakistan): 12,991,000
18. NYC: 8,336,697
The Political Economy of Cities and Communities
GROWTH MACHINE: investors and governments work to increase the size of the city's population and the level of economic activity occurring within it
larger city- more room for retail
politically larger tax base
not natural
direct result of political and economic interests working to promote growth
The metropolis of Los Angeles—with its sharp contrasts between gated housing communities and redeveloped commercial zones on the one hand, and destitute poor areas on the other—offers a good illustration of such a political process: a “growth coalition” sought to keep poor minorities from moving into certain spaces, for instance, by allocating tax subsidies to commercial developers.
Urbanism as a Way of Life
Louis Wirth (1938 Chicago)
diversity in cities does not necessarily lead to interaction among different groups living in close proximity
Georg Simmel
freedom and isolation in the city
Claude Fisher (Urban Sociologist)
higher rates of artistic innovation, crime
"extreme" lifestyles
venues
Jane Jacobs
cities don't have to be cold and isolated
physical layout of neighborhoods
quality of life
walkable urban communities
urban design
Why Are So Many Social Problems Found in Cities?
Concentrated Poverty and the Urban Ghetto
William Julius Wilson Theory
past 50 years manufacturing jobs disappear from N.E and Midwest cities
no stable jobs (Great Migration)
fewer 'marriageable" black men who could support a family
single parent headed families rose
welfare receipt
middle class black leave area
churches and schools deteriorated
CONCENTRATION OF POVERTY
high levels of violence
homelessness
joblessness
welfare
abandoned
Segregation and Urban Diversity
SEGMENTED ASSIMILATION
immigrants
several possible pathways
upward mobility and cultural assimilation to mainstream
downward economic mobility and assimilation to urban poor
integrate into economic mainstream staying in residential enclave
Concentrated poverty global problem
Immigration and the Urban Landscape
Globalization and the City
Global cities
global business
global elite who control international commerce
global service who cater to the elite
cities consist of
airports
top-level business districts
5 star hotels
5 star restaurants
fashion boutiques
high end shopping
Cities attempt to lure corporations and business people
less attention to local residents
public spaces left untouched
removal of homeless
walls go up
Six Degrees of Separation

world of 6.6 billion people
we are all six introductions away from any other person on the planet
Full transcript