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Social Studies Project- WWII

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Eelolo Canadia

on 10 November 2010

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Transcript of Social Studies Project- WWII

Battle of the Bulge The Allied Invasion of Northwestern Europe On June 6, 1944 the attack on Normandy began. Immediately, Allied air forces went to cover the major bridges and roads behing German lines so that organization and counterrattack wouldn't be as effective during the amphibious part of the assault. There were different units assigned to different beaches for different objectives. The Canadian forces, which arrived at Juno Beach, were the only forces to accomplish all of their objectives for D-Day. The American forces went to Omaha Beach, where they faced veterans of war. Commanders of the units there considered retreat, but by the third day all of the objectives were reached by that perticular American force. The Germans were being constantly bombarded by shells and bombs from the ships and planes that were always present at D-Day. The Operation Overlord plan was thought to last 90 days before it ended, and that operation ended early with success. The invasion of Normandy ended around July 25, 1944. Historians still debate which date is the real end of the Normandy invasion because some think it was After the Allies estaablished a hold on Normandy, while some think it was when Paris was liberated. Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944 when the Free French 2nd Armored Division made the German general surrender. Wowo Wow its still going Can you think of any heros of this battle? What do you think Hitler hoped to achieve by winning the Battle of the Bulge? What do you see in this picture? Details on the U.S. Alliance with Great Britain and the Soviet Union Works Cited World War II
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"WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West . In Depth . Uneasy Allies | PBS." PBS. N.p., n.d. 5 May 2010. Web.

"World War II in China." World War II History Library. N.p., n.d. 5 May 2010. Web. Made by Randolph Davidson,
Luke Huebner, and Mai Tran Made by Randolph Davidson,
Luke Huebner, and Mai Tran This picture is a propaganda poster showing the “Big Three”: Prime minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill, president [of the United States] Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and prime minister of the Soviet Union Josef Stalin. To summarize their alliance, one could describe them as tense, but determined.
These weren’t the only people that were on the Allied side though. Countries like France, China, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Greece, and many more, also participated in defeating Hitler and Nazi Germany.
It says, “For Equal Rights to all Nations” and, “The Three Men Who Saved the World.” This goes to show that, even though these men had a tense relationship throughout the war, they were able to put off these differences for the time being. They fought long and hard to save the world—and especially the Jews—from Hitler’s wrath. Strategies and plans like Operation Overlord, the western front, and the United Nations Organization were results of the Allies’ discussions.
During the war, Stalin and his army needed relief. Stalin requested that the Allies open a second front in Western Europe (possibly France) to redirect the German forces, but Churchill wasn't able to open a second front. He believed that it was suicidal and that they weren’t capable to defeat the Germans in France. Finally, in the end of 1943, Great Britain and the United States were planning to invade France to open a second front in northwestern Europe.
Plans for Operation Overlord began in 1943. It was led by British Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick E. Morgan, the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Allied Commander (COSSAC), and later, on November 1943, Supreme Commander of Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) General Dwight D. Eisenhower, and General Sir Bernard Montgomery. The COSSAC plan was created, and it was then adopted, changed, and approved by Montgomery and Eisenhower. This plan was put into effect on D-Day.
In Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C. 1944, the Allies laid out a plan for the United Nations Organization. The United Nations advocates international peace and security. By then, the United Nations had fifty members. The United Nations was made official on October 24, 1945. They held conferences. During these conferences, they didn't get distracted by each of their differences because they constantly focused on a goal. This goal was to defeat Hitler and the other Axis Powers. By doing this, the Allies were able to cooperate well, even if they had a few quarrels here and there. At the end of the war though, the Allies split up and the Cold War began. The Allies during WWII were always at each other’s throats, but they were able to win because they worked hard and set aside their differences. They knew that they could not defeat Hitler— without each other, so they made an alliance. It is amazing that three men that were totally different were able to be grouped together as the “Three Men Who Saved the World.”
The lesson learned here is that there is always going to be people that you don’t get along with, but in times of trouble— —people need to come together and cooperate. People can’t just spend time complaining about how they “don’t like this person” and “don’t want to work together with them.” What if Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin constantly whined about how they didn’t want to work together? They would have gotten nothing done. If they got nothing done, maybe Hitler would have taken over the world! And, there wouldn’t be any Jews left! There would only be one race: Aryans. That would be horrible! Many people who are alive today would not be alive if not for the “Big Three.” They truly “saved the world.” What do you see in this picture? Did the "Big Three" always get along well? If not, how did they keep their thoughts under control? What were the results of the Allies’ meetings? What can one learn from the Alliance System during World War II? A soldier is examining his fellow comrade who appears to be dead in the snow. He was one of the many casualties of the Battle of the Bulge. Beginning in December of 1944 and ending in January 1945, it took place in the Ardennes region of Belgium. The battle of the Bulge was the last offensive move made by the German Army. Hitler launched his attack in the Allies weak spot, surprising the Allies with thousands of guns. Fourteen German divisions were attacking a smaller group of Allies. Outnumbered and surprised, the Allies fought back. The Germans continued to advance, creating a huge bulge between the armies in the process. However, they did not capitalize on this. Even with the weather on their side, the Germans could not obtain their objective. A few days past and the winter snowstorms went away. The result of this, the Allies could finally bring in their air force, however, so could the Germans. The Germans used jet bombers to try and destroy rail yards so that the Allies could not supply themselves. This attempt was meaningless, because without fuel for their armored vehicles, they could not capitalize on the attack. Since the Germans made that bulge, they had not advanced any further. The battle was at a stalemate. By mid-January of 1945, the lack of fuel forced many Germans to leave their vehicles and go back to Germany. 200,000 reinforcements had also arrived to help the Allies, pushing the Germans east. Once the Allies had managed to push the Germans east, they won the Battle of the Bulge. However, the victory did come with a price. About 81,000 American soldiers were killed out of the 600,000 Americans who participated in the battle. On the other hand, 100,000 Germans were killed, wounded, or captured. What do you think Hitler wanted to achieve by winning this battle? What prevented him from doing this? Hitler's goal for the Battle of the Bulge was to surround and barricade Canada's First Army, America's First and Ninth Armies, and Great Britain's Second Army. Hitler would have also succeeded in creating a split in the Allied line of defense, if he had managed to win the Battle of the Bulge. A result of this could have been the capturing of Antwerp, an important port on the coast of Belgium. There were many problems that prevented Hitler’s army from winning this battle. For example, the Germans had a huge lack of fuel to keep their armored vehicles going. Those armored vehicles were an offensive key for Germany. If they had been able to keep them going, they might have won the battle. It also did not help that the Germans had been on retreat since D-Day. By winning the Battle of the Bulge, the Allies were able to make a run toward the bridges that would allow passage across the Rhine River. Many of the bridges had been destroyed by Germany to prevent enemy invasion. However, since the Allies won the Battle of the Bulge, they were able to cross a remaining bridge. By winning the Battle of the Bulge, the Allies also managed to end the offensive attacks made by Germany. Since they won the Battle of the Bulge, they pushed the German Army into Germany. Hitler and his army would now have to go on the defensive as the Allies began to make their way towards Berlin. Hitler's plan for the Battle of the Bulge was just a false hope; he would not be able to push the Allies back. It was due to Hitler's failure at the Battle of the Bulge that the Allies really started to make their way towards the center of Germany. Who were some key people in this battle? The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle America participated in during World War II; about 600,000 American soldiers participated in this battle. There were a few Americans who were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their actions they did during the Battle of the Bugle. One of those men was Arthur O. Beyer. Beyer was a Corporal who was working a tank-destroyer gunner. During the battle, he went on a self-imposed mission. During that mission he managed to destroy two machinegun positions, he killed eight enemy soldiers, and he managed to capture eighteen prisoners (that includes two bazooka teams). Another man who received the medal for actions he made during the Battle of the Bulge was Melvin E. Biddle. Biddle was a Private First Class that served as a lead scout. He killed many enemy soldiers in machinegun positions. He also took out three snipers. On top of all of this, he also found valuable information about two enemy tanks. Paul L. Boden was also a person who received a Congressional Medal of Honor. Boden was a Staff Sergeant. He and a comrade voluntarily attacked a formidable enemy when his company was pinned down by heavy atomic and small-arms fire coming from a house in front of them. He and his comrade advanced on the house, S/Sgt. Bidden managed to cause confusion by throwing two grenades into the house. Then, against tremendous odds, he fired at the thirty-five SS troopers in the house with his submachine gun. Twenty Germans died as a result of that. He then struck by a blast that he survived, but killed his comrade. He then waited for the Germans to surrender, but when they didn't he went in and managed to kill the remaining fifteen SS officers that were still in the house. It is because of men like these that the Allies won the battle. Each of these men deserves the honor that they were given. http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/newspapers/operations/p_ddaymap_e.shtml What do you see? General Dwight D. Eisenhower talking to the leader of a paratrooper unit. What do you think he is telling those troops? How does their role relate to the Liberation of France as a whole? Eisenhower is most likely telling them about why they need to get behind the German lines and disrupt the roads and bridges. This was necessary so that the Germans couldn’t get reinforcements and effectively organize a counterattack. Their role relates to the Liberation of France as a whole by making it very difficult for the Germans to effectively organize a counterattack, making it easier for the Allies to move on to their next operation once everyone else has accomplished their tasks. Without them doing what they did, a lot of things could have gone wrong. In late 1943, the Allies decided that they needed to take back France from Germany. Way before the actual invasion, the Allies did an operation to deceive the Germans. This operation, which was called Operation Fortitude, was to trick the German forces into thinking that the Allies would attack a different part of the coast at the beginning of the Normandy invasion. The real plan was that they were going to attack them from the English Channel, so they decided an amphibious attack would be most effective. The Allies would attack the Normandy coast of France which is why it is called the Normandy Invasion. All of the planning took place in the Allies' Headquarters, Great Britain. Also, all of the different beaches that they were going to assault were given different code names. Many generals wanted to avoid a frontal assault because that was proven to be too costly after WWI. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed the Commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), in which he would lead them through the invasion. The original designated day of invasion, commonly known as “D-Day”, was May first of 1944; however, it was delayed until June 6, 1944. Also, the original name of Operation Overlord was Operation Roundup (which was to be executed in 1943, but it got delayed so they changed the name). The Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander (COSSAC) was the "head committee" for planning this invasion. There were a little over two million men along with thousands of ships, tanks, and aircraft in south Britain ready for D-Day to begin. On June 6, 1944, the attack on Normandy began. Immediately, Allied air forces went over to the major bridges and roads behind German lines, that way, paratroopers could delay organization and counterattack during the amphibious part of the assault. There were 6,939 different vessels in the water; assault boats, transport boats, and anti-aircraft boats. There were also different units assigned to specific beaches for distinct purposes. The Canadian forces, which arrived at Juno Beach, were the only forces to accomplish all of their objectives for D-Day (on the first day of the invasion). The American forces went to Omaha Beach, where they faced the most experienced German troops. Commanders of the American units had considered retreat, but by the third day, all of the objectives were reached by that particular American force. The Germans were being constantly bombarded by shells and bombs from the ships and planes that were always present at D-Day. The Operation Overlord plan was thought to last 90 days before it ended, and that operation ended early with success. The invasion of Normandy ended around July 25, 1944. Historians still debate which date is the real end of the Normandy invasion because some think it was after the Allies established a hold on Normandy, while others think it was when Paris was liberated. Paris was liberated after the Battle for Paris, which started on August 19, 1944, and ended on August 25, 1944, when the Free French 2nd Armored Division made the German general surrender, who did not obey Hitler’s direct orders to stay and fight until Paris was in ruins. The French also had backup from the US. Originally, General Eisenhower didn’t make liberating Paris a top priority. He wanted to get to Berlin first and try and end the war there. He also knew that Hitler had given the word to destroy Paris, which is another reason Eisenhower didn’t want to liberate Paris first. To make Paris a priority, the Free French 2nd Armored Division threatened to go into Paris alone. The total casualties for the Battle for Paris, was about 1,800 Allies dead and about 300 wounded. On the German side, there was about 3,200 dead and about 12,800 prisoners taken. Operation Dragon was the codename for the invasion of the rest of France; the liberation of France. Made by: Randolph Davidson,
Luke Huebner, and Mai Tran The American forces went to Omaha Beach, where they faced the most experienced German troops. Commanders of the American units had considered retreat, but by the third day, all of the objectives were reached by that particular American force. The Germans were being constantly bombarded by shells and bombs from the ships and planes that were always present at D-Day. The Operation Overlord plan was thought to last 90 days before it ended, and that operation ended early with success.
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