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American History Chapter 3

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Jordan Hardee

on 29 August 2015

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Transcript of American History Chapter 3

American History
Chapter 3, "The American Revolution"

The Impact Today
The American Revolution
American's value/ protect
freedom
and

the right to
representation
in govt
The US Constitution a model of
representative govt
Why
did the colonists declare their independence from Britain?
The French and Indian War (1754-1763)
Br./ Fr. clash over the
Ohio River Valley
territory
Fort Duquesne
Virginian
George Washington
leads force to expel Fr. from the territory
Fort Necessity
The Albany Conference
George Washington
Br. urged colonists to prepare for war/ negotiate peace with Iroquois
Albany, NY (1754)
(1) Iroquois agree to remain neutral
(2) Br. appoint commander of troops
(3)
Albany Plan of Union
Albany Plan of Union
first attempt to bind the Am. colonies together under one united, federal govt
Pennsylvania Gazette
(1754)
The Massachusetts Son
(1774)
Benjamin Franklin
“The Confidence of the French in this Undertaking seems well-grounded on the present
disunited
State of the British Colonies, and the extreme Difficulty of bringing so many
different
Governments and Assemblies to agree in any speedy and effectual Measures for our common defense and Security; while our Enemies have the very great Advantage of being under one Direction, with one Council, and one Purse….”
- Benjamin Franklin
The British Triumph
1755;
Edward Braddock
appointed Br. commander-in-chief, Washington his aide
1763;
The Treaty of Paris
Fr. loses all N.A. territory
Sp. loses La Florida/ gains western Louisiana
"These savages may indeed be a formidable enemy to your raw American militia. Upon the King's regular and disciplined troops, it is impossible they should make any impression."
- Gen. Edward Braddock
The Colonies Grow Discontented
Problem of paying for French and Indian war led to colonial discontent
The Proclamation Act of 1763
New Taxes

Proclamation of 1763
declared colonists could not settle west of the Line without Br. govt permission
Custom duties
- taxes on imports/ exports
Combat smuggling problem -
Vice-Admiralty courts
; no jury system/ no speedy public trial
Sugar Act
(1764) tax rates on imports of sugar, molasses, silk, wine, coffee, indigo
English Bill of Rights
"That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders"
English Bill of Rights
"That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative,
without grant of Parliament
, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is
illegal
."
"O my dear creatures, do but taste it! You can't think how nice it is
without sugar
. And then consider how much work you'll save the poor blackmoors by leaving off the use of it! And above all, remember how much expense it will save your
poor papa
! O its charming cooling drink."
Custom Reform and New Taxes
George Grenville
1763; Chancellor of the Exchequer
£122 mil debt post-1763
Br. policy towards colonies
end of
salutary neglect
- Br. policy of avoiding strict enforcement of Parliamentary laws to keep Am. colonies obedient
James Otis,
Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved
(1763)
argued that "taxation without representation is
tyranny
"
revealed colonial dissatisfaction with Br. Parliamentary measures
Custom Reform and New Taxes
"The very act of taxing, exercised over those who are
not represented
, appears to me to be depriving them one of their most essential
rights
as freemen."
The Stamp Act Crisis
The Stamp Act
(1765)
required revenue stamp be placed on all printed materials (newspapers, pamphlets, deeds, playing cards, etc)
first
direct
tax
imposed on Am. colonists/ impacted
entire
pop.
Honi soit qui mal y pense,
"Shame to him who thinks evil of it"
Reaction to the Stamp Act
"Gentleman may cry, Peace, Peace - but there is no peace... I know not what course others may take; but as for me,
give me Liberty or give me Death
!"
Patrick Henry
The Quartering Act
- required col. accommodate Br. troops
Reaction to the Stamp Act
Sons of Liberty
Oct. 1765;
Stamp Act Congress
only the col. pol. representatives, not Parliament, had the right to tax them
petitioned repeal of Stamp Act
nonimportation agreement
- pledge not to purchase Br. goods until Parliament repealed the Stamp Act
1766; Stamp Act repealed,
Declaratory Act
- asserted Br.'s power to make laws for Am. colonies
The Townshend Acts
1767;
Charles Townshend
, new Chancellor of the Exchequer
Revenue Act of 1767; import duties on glass, lead, paper, paint
writs of assistance
-search warrant; permitted any location to be entered to investigate smuggling
Charles Townshend
Reaction
1768; John Dickinson,

Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer
Only assemblies elected by colonists had the right to tax them
urged col. to "form one body politic"
The Boston Massacre
1768; Br. labeled "
tyrants
" for killing those who stood up for their rights
Br. Parliament permits the resumption of colonial assemblies
repeal all taxes except custom duty on
tea
.
Conceptions of Representation
The Colonists
The British
Actual
Representation
actual
representatives in Br. Parliament
Virtual
Representation
MP's
virtually
represented every person in the empire
The Boston Massacre
Section 2, "The Revolution Begins"
1772; R. I.; The
Gaspee
Affair
committee of correspondence
-
brought unity
resistance tactics

Boston Tea Party
1773;
The Tea Act
designed to aid the Br. East India Company
cheaper
price
Eng. sell directly to shopkeepers
Boston Tea Party
- protest against Br. Tea Act, raid on Br. ships
turning point in Am/ Br. relations/ crisis will escalate into the Am. Revolution
British Response to Boston Tea Party
The First Continental Congress
5 Sept. 1775
, in Philadelphia, PA.
urged col. to disobey Intolerable Acts
placed an embargo (ban) on Br. trade
Intolerable Acts
Boston's port shut down
MA. govt controlled by Br.
Br. troops quartered in homes
The Revolution Begins
minutemen
- American militiamen who volunteered to be ready for service at a minute's notice
Division
Loyalists
vs.
Patriots
(
Tories
) Those who remained loyal to Britain
(
Whigs
) believed the Br. had become tyrants
Lexington and Concord
Concord
- town in MA; held militia's weapon/ ammunition supply
17 April 1775;
Paul Revere
, William Dawes ride to Lexington to warn col. of Br. troops
"One if by land, two if by sea.."
Old North Church
19 Ap. 1775 - Br. troops encounter militia men in Lexington
Concord
; Br. forced to retreat to Boston, where they were trapped
The Second Continental Congress
Defense
Militiamen =
Continental Army
George Washington; gen./ commander-in-chief
Battle at Bunker Hill
Br. reinforcements land in Boston
17 June 1775
; Battle at Bunker Hill
built Am. confidence, stimulated the Revolutionary cause
“A few more such victories would have surely put an end to British dominion in America.”
- Br. Gen. Henry Clinton
"Don't fire til you see the whites of their eyes."
- Am. Gen. William Prescott
The Decision for Independence
Efforts at Peace
July 1775;
Olive Branch Petition
affirmed Am. loyalty to the king, asserted col. rights, entreated him to end hostilities
radicals convince Congress to attack Quebec
Fr. join Am. in fighting the Br.
convinces Br. no hope for peace
"We Your Majesty's faithful subjects.."
George III refuses to see the document
The Continental Congress acts like an independent govt
est Continental Navy/ Marines
a postal system
negotiate peace with Indians
"[The American colonists are now] open and avowed enemies."
- George III
The Fighting Spreads
Br. declare Africans enslaved by rebels would be freed if they fought for the Loyalists
pushes
south
to fight for independence
Prohibitory Act
- ceased trade with col./ Br. Navy blockaded the coast
The Colonies Declare Independence
Talk of breaking with Britain
Jan. 1776;
Common Sense
, Thomas Paine
attacked the
monarchy
, supported independence/ democratic-republic
succeeded in uniting the country (col. pol. and public opinion) to declare indendence against Br.
"King George is the Pharaoh of England.."
- Thomas Paine
The Colonies Declare Independence
4 July 1776
; Philadelphia
Declaration of Independence
signed
Am col. now United States of America
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created equal
, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
inalienable rights
, that among these are
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
..."
"We must all hang together, or most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."
- Benjamin Franklin
"But there is something absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island."
- Thomas Paine
Full transcript