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Case study on three groups of indigenous peoples.
Transcript of Case study on three groups of indigenous peoples.
of life HOUSING, NUMBERS IN A GROUP, WAY OF LIFE, AKA WHO or WHAT
HAPPENED? EMBRACE FIGHT Did they Newcomers, or Them? Who were they? The Aranda people are native to the area around Alice Springs, which is located in the northern area of Australia. Urarina groups compose of a semi-mobile way of life, centered around hunting and horicultural food sources. They reside in Longhouses, typically made out of dried broadleaf plants and tree trunks, under which many families may reside. The Urarina inhabited the Chambira and Urituyacu river basins, just north of the Marañon river in Peru for the past 500 years. IN PERU The
Urarinae The Aranda people were a nomadic group of hunter gatherers. Although they were nomadic, they had many camps set up along an established route they would travel along yearly. Their camps are named and watered, but they don't set up permanent shelters. The Urarina typically survive on a diet of: MALE FEMALE Contributions Contributions The Aranda had an egalitarian structure. Power was quite equal and there was little specialization. Anybody could make hunting tools as there was no one person assigned specifically to do a certain task. There is no leader, but decisions are usually based on several elder men. This is not because women have no say, but because women usually live on their husbands land and so the decisions fall to them. The Aranda, (also known as the Arrente), are actually composed of many different groups. The main difference between the groups is their dialect of the Arandan language. They are otherwise quite similar. However, they are independent and relations between groups can range from intermarriage to war. Currently one of the two largest indigenous amazonian populations in Peru, the semi-nomadic Urarina people live by their own means. They have chosen isolation over connection, and are faring well by thier decision. Males will typically hunt small game in the area, such as fish, monkeys, bears, deer, and other animals. Males do not typically forage, but will aid women occasionally. Females have the cliche role of fabricating textiles and foraging. Aboriginals across Australia have the same religion, but the myths and stories vary by region. Their religious beliefs focus on the 'Dreamtime' when their totemic ancestors came into the cold lifeless earth. As they traveled, they shaped the world and created life their. Areas are given importance based on the myths and totems associated with that location. After the totems had formed the world, they returned to the land and the sky to rest. As a result of this, a child is said to be part of a totem depending on where he or she is born. As a part of a totem, the natives only learn about the myths relevant to your area, and are uninterested in the land of others. To this very day, the Urarina are FORCEFULLY SUPPRESSING any foray by a threat into their territory. Urarina religion consists almost entirely of oral history. History, morals and legends are passed down through stories. Portions of the bible have been published in Urarina in an attempt to convert the Urarina people. Most of their legends include tales about flooding, and how to properly cope with losses. Urarina females create roofs by the same method they make clothing... palm leaf weaving! Males are Shamen. So, They act as Healthcare
Support Chemists etc. So, MEAT AKA PLANTS The Urarina Language is defined as isolate or unclassified, as it was developed without any influence from other nations. Few have learned it, but the few who have have brought back wonderful tales. Today, elaborate myths and storytelling takes place within their semi-mobile villages, with topics mostly focused on forced-labor conscription, abusive treatment (Rape, slaughter, and disease,). One of their most popular myths is abut a flood where a man saves himself by climbing a cudi tree. His family is saved by becoming part of the environment. This says a lot about their environmental stance; rather than seeing it as something to exploit, it is something that, according to myths, they are a part of. Urarina culture has been surpressed for years, however, settlement and modernization of peru have not changed their lifestyle or location to a high extent; being semi-nomadic, their roaming area has moved due to external threats, but routine remains the same. Culture remains the same. Food, although it may be poisoned from toxins in the river, remains a food source. When the Spanish swept through South America, the Urarina tribe was left entirely unscathed. Recently, however, they have not been so lucky. Today, the Urarina face many threats, the largest being the rogue Oil companies who are ceaselessly battering their natural habitat, driling for the oil beneath the old-growth swamp that feeds the amazonia, and the surrounding area. This has sped up the spread of disease, along with common visits by loggers, river-traders, and drug voyageurs. They are still battling loggers and river traders along their territory THIS VERY SECOND They have totally and entirely ignored the dominant culture in the country today, and it looks like they are not planning on changing anytime soon. I honestly think that this was a good choice. in fact, I commend them on keeping their culture. However, their choice has given them less legal power against the oil buisnesses at hand, and without outside help, will be abused continually until they are forced away from their home. In short, the Urarina are a unique tribe that has been, and continues to be one of the most isolated cultures in the world. There are only three internet articles about them, and their semi-nomadic state does not help in terms of tracking. These are two of the very few photographs of them in existance. A Longhouse Location+
Migration The Tarahumara people originally inhabited the Sierra Tarahumara in the summer (which is named after their existence and due to it being cool) and canyons such as the Copper Canyon in the summer (where it is warmer). These are located in the modern province of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. They would originally live in caves and cliff overhangs wherever possible. They also migrated in groups throughout the year. Thus, they would have multiple homes in multiple places in Chihuahua. Diet Their diet consisted of things that could be grown or harvested nearby. They would grow crops of corn, beans, potatoes, squash, and other fruits. The women would also usually be solely responsible for gathering, where they would collect herbs, nuts, berries, cactus fruits and seeds. While the females did this, the males would go out hunting for meats, and would also ranch animals. The meats that they commonly harvested were goat, freshwater fish, chicken, turkey, sheep, and beef. They were mainly vegetarian, with the exceptions being the small amounts of meat they collected. About 85% of their diet consisted of corn. As well as eating lots of corn, they brew an alcoholic beverage known as Tesqüino. This beer-like substance is corn based, and has a low level of alcohol. It is estimated that it would take four litres of Tesqüino before a full grown man would become intoxicated. It has always been important to their culture. RUNNING They do it for sport, for assistance, and from necessity. The Tarahumara are most well known for their superior long-distance running abilities, and always have been. All Tarahumaras learn to run very proficiently from a very early age, and this stays until they are on their deathbeds. People will run messages between communities, will hunt down animals by persistence hunting, and they also love to run just because. Everybody participates in super marathons, almost everyday. This consists of running hundreds of miles in a day. The fastest recorded run is 500 miles in just slightly over 48 hours, and some people have even been known to run for almost a week in one go. This also means that they all run in long sessions, usually without breaks. The Tarahumaras speak an Uto-Aztecan language. This entitles that their language is originated from both the Aztec and Ute peoples languages. The Ute are people indigenous to the modern Utah area of the United States of America. The Aztecs originated from the area of modern day Mexico City. LANGUAGE The Tarahumara never have truly lost their identity. The Spanish were the first Europeans to enter the modern state of Chihuahua in 1616. As soon as they came, the Spanish immediately wanted Tarahumaras lands conquered. Their lands had an extremely rich amount of valuable minerals, and especially silver and gold. The Mayans and Incas had already built mines in the mountain range to obtain some of the valuables, and so the Spanish took over these mines and built new ones. This is still one of the main reasons the Spanish, and and now Mexicans, want to own the lands. However, this is currently not so. The Tarahumara have fought of the Spanish countless times in countless battles, and even some other civilizations such as the French, the Americans, and even the Aztecs. The Spanish were the most persistent, and set up Jesuit missionaries wherever possible. LOSS OF POW ER MODERN CULTURE AS AFFECTED BY CONQUERORS Today, the Tarahumara still have their own identity. They live in almost the exact same way as they originally did. The only huge difference is they now commonly live in plots of land called rancheras, and multiple rancheras are arranged together to make a community. These rancheras have wooden or stone, single room, permanent house built on the land, where the entire family lives. They do not own any furniture or have anything in their house either than pelts and weavings to sleep on, and ceramic jars to store drinks. When a boy and a girl get married, they move away onto a nearby plot of land, and build another house. Thus, the community expands. Although they have their own identity, they are now having extreme difficulty keeping it. The Mexicans still greatly desire their natural resources, mainly the mines. Because of this, they are becoming more and more forceful to go in and take the land. To be able to mine more minerals, much of the original forests have been cut down. Mexican drug traffickers also cut down large patches of forest to create room to grow drugs (this does not include the land that they force the Tarahumara to grow drugs on instead of crops) and also to makes spots to do their deals. Roughly only 2% or only 300,000 acres of the original forest exist today. The main strategy that the Tarahumara utilize to maintain independence is to stay hidden and isolated. In order to do this, they must move to the most remote places, with the worst lands to live on. AND, LAST BUT NOT LEAST... CINEMA OOH, FANCY! BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliographyhttp://www.questconnect.org/tara_cc_ethnic.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarahumara_peoplehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uto-Aztecan_languageshttp://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/11/tarahumara-people/kendrick-photographyhttp://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/11/tarahumara-people/gorney-texthttp://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1902027,00.htmlhttp://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/chihuahua.html A CINEMATIC INTERWEB VIDEO FILE MINIVAULT AND A BRIEF
BIBLIOGRAPHY en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urarina_people saiic.nativeweb.org/ayn/urupdate.html www.native-languages.org › ... › What's new These are literally the only three links to translatable or English pages on the web. Aborignials in Australia were experts at finding food in their area. All aboriginals had extensive knowledge of the land and it's resources. Men were usually in charge of hunting larger game, but they weren't always successful. Women and children therefore, played an important part in gathering edible plants insects and small game. This was especially important for the Aranda people, as it was much harder to find food and water in their harsh climate. Although men and women were regarded as equal, they had had different roles in society and even had different rituals and ceremonies. Their wars however, were mostly small raids against other tribes that usually resulted in less than a dozen deaths. This was because most groups consisted of only 500 people. Their weaponry was rather basic, as they were peaceful. It consists of wooden spear and stone hammers that were mainly used for hunting. European Invasion! European contact has been very detrimental to aboriginals all over Australia. In 1770, James Cook claimed the eastern part of Australia for England. Later on, British settlers arrived. They started up colonies on the eastern side and began to interact with the natives. The aboriginals were regarded as savage by the Europeans, but they aimed to peacefully negotiate and civilize the native Australians. At first, the natives didn’t strongly resist the initial European settlement, although the whites were feared and resented. The first Europeans to make contact were Dutch traders. They did not interact much as they were only investigating trade opportunities and they didn’t want to establish a bad relation with the natives. Major troubles began when the settlements became more permanent. The Europeans openly ignored the aboriginal land rights. This was a sever issue to all Australian tribes because the land was sacred to them, as part of their totem ancestors. Eventually the whites made their way across Australia, taking land from natives as they went. Aboriginals were only welcome if their labor on stations was valuable. Throughout this time, there was lots of physical violence. Natives sometimes speared cattle that were on their hunting grounds, which provoked the whites to retaliate and kill them. Sometimes, Europeans killed natives for no apparent reason. Besides the physical violence, the natives also suffered from a worsening quality of life, as their game was driven away or killed by Europeans. The natives were losing hope, as their land (and therefore spirituality) was being taken. What killed the most however, were the deadly diseases Europeans had brought. Australians suffered from relatively few illnesses, many of which were skin and eye irritations. Their lack of exposure to disease made them especially susceptible to diseases like small pox, tuberculosis, whooping cough and even the common cold. All of these factors combined to devastate native communities across Australia. As their numbers declined, the few people that wanted to help the natives found themselves helpless, with nothing to do other than make the demise of the aboriginals as comfortable as possible. From the 1960s on, things slowly improved. Australian aboriginals were slowly gaining more power and recognition. Some groups were even successful at regaining some of their land. Land rights were one of the main concerns as time moved forward. Censuses reported an increase in native population, partially because there were more native births and partially because more people identified themselves as aboriginals. However, the average life span of natives was significantly lower than that of whites. Some good news... kind of Uh-oh Horrible things happening Today, the Aranda culture has eroded significantly They have somewhat adopted the european way of life. They now live in permanent residences. They live on part of their original land, but it has been turned into cities and towns. However, they still practice traditional medicine, language, religion and art. Unfortunately, they still suffer from many diseases and other health problems. Their art has become quite popular, and it is what they are best known for today. A few examples of Arandan Art Who Are They Today? A view into the situation of the Aranda Bibliography Image Credit:
"Aranda." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.everyculture.com/Oceania/Aranda.html>.
"Australia - Aborigines And European Settlers." N.p., 24 May 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.janesoceania.com/australia_aboriginal_whitesettlers/index1.htm>.
Broome, Richard. "ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS." Richard Broome, ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/courses/lawdemo/WEBREAD/BROOME9.htm>.
"INTRODUCTION TO AUSTRALIA'S ABORIGINAL CULTURE." Aboriginal Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.aboriginalculture.com.au/introduction.shtml>.