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Cold War Summary Project

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"Evan Stefanek

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of Cold War Summary Project

The United Nations After the second world war, over fifty countries including Canada came together to form the United Nations. Their main goals were to; keep world peace, prevent wars, defend human rights, and to improve the standard of living in the world. They met in San Francisco. The Security Council The security council was created to maintain world peace, and has the power to force other members of the UN to carry out its decisions. It is made of the five victors of the war - Britain, the USA, China, the USSR, and France - as permanent members, and of ten other countries serving 2 year terms. The five permanent members each had the veto power, so they could block any decision. San Francisco In 1948, Canada gained a non-permanent seat on the security council Berlin The Berlin Blockade - Start of the Cold War At the end of the second world war there was suddenly no longer a large group of "Great Powers", there were only the United States and the Soviet Union, both were Superpowers. Both superpowers were also nuclear powers so the risk of a nuclear war was high. After the war the city of Berlin was split into 4 sections and given to Britain, France, the USA and the Soviet union. France, Britain and the United States were given access to the city though specific routes. When the allies joined their parts of the city, the Soviets responded by blocking off all the entrances to the city. Britain, France, and the USA decided to airlift all of the necessary supplies into Berlin. The Soviets called off the blockade after 15 months when they realized that the blockade wasn't working. Gouzenko Igor Gouzenko was a clerk working at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada. In September of 1945 he tried to defect to Canada, taking with him proof of a spy ring operating in Canada. At first Canadian officials did not believe in Gouzenko's claims, but eventually learned that he was telling the truth; Soviet spies had been working in Canada. When Canadians found out about the Soviet spies, it changed their attitude on the Soviets, and Communism. Police watched for people who might have communist interests, and raided homes in search of communist material. Ottawa NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a military alliance made between the capitalist countries in the west in 1949. It was made up of the USA, Canada, Britain, France and many other western European countries. They all agreed that if it was necessary, they would use nuclear weapons. Canada joined NATO because of the safety that it provided, and because the people had a fear of Communism. The Iron Curtain Communist (Warsaw Pact) Capitalist (NATO) Warsaw Pact and the Iron Curtain The Warsaw Pact was military alliance formed in 1955 between the Soviet Union and other eastern European countries. The countries in the Warsaw Pact were all communist. The Iron Curtain was a line that separated Europe into two half's, communist and capitalist. The Berlin Wall was a strong symbol of the Iron Curtain that separated the east from the west. NORAD - North American Defense In 1957, Canada and the United States came together to form NORAD, the North American Defense system. The main purpose of NORAD was to set up radar stations to detect Soviet missiles of planes to give early warning of an attack. The central command station was build deep in CHeyenne Mountain Colorado, and a Canadian command post was build in North Bay Ontario. When NORAD was formed, the construction of early warning radar lines was started in Canada. By 1957 the DEW Line, the Mid-Canada Line, and the Pinetree Line were all built. The Korean War After the second world war, Korea was split into two parts. The North was communist and backed by the USSR, and the South was capitalist and backed by the USA. In June 1950 North Korean troops armed with Soviet weapons crossed the border and attacked South Korea. The South Koreans immediately asked for military aid from the States. The United States went to the UN and asked them to send a force to Korea. The United Nations agreed and a force from 32 countries was sent. Pusan North Korean Advance Canada was one of the countries who sent troops to the UN. Over 26500 troops served in Korea to fight under the United Nations. In total 400 of them were killed. By August of 1950 the North Korean army had pushed South Korean troops all the way back to the port city of Pusan. As United Nations troops started to arrive, they formed a perimeter around Pusan, and started to push the North Koreans out of the territory they had captured. Incheon Incheon Landing On the 15th of September United Nations forces made an amphibious landing at the port of Incheon. The attack was successful and it helped other UN troops in the south to move forward. China enters the war By mid-October the UN force had pushed the North Koreans almost all the way out of Korea and was near the Chinese border. The American General MacArthur was sure that the Chinese would not intervene, but on October 25th hundreds of thousands of Chinese poured across the border and attacked the UN force. The strength and numbers of the Chinese caused the UN forces to retreat to the south. Stalemate and Armistice The UN forces were quickly pushed back to the 38th parallel but managed to halt the Chinese advance. Then the fighting became more even and a sort of stalemate was made and neither side gained much ground. UN forces slowly started to withdraw and an armistice was signed in 1953 on July 27. A demilitarized zone was created between North and South Korea which still exists today. Cuban Missile Crisis Throughout the cold war the US and the Soviet Union stockpiled nuclear weapons in different countries around the world. In October 1962 the US discovered nuclear weapons stored in the communist county Cuba. The Americans decided to set up a naval blockade around Cuba to stop the arrival of more dangerous weapons. They also demanded the Soviet to remove the missiles from Cuba. Ships from the USSR that were headed to Cuba eventually agreed to turn around, and the Soviets agreed to dismantle the missile bases. Later, it was found that the American president also agreed to remove nuclear weapons from Europe if the Soviets removed their weapons from Cuba. Suez Canal The Suez Crisis The Egyptian President Nasser took the Suez Canal from Britain and France in 1956. France and Britain allied with Israel and send troops into Egypt which quickly recaptured the canal. The Soviet Union backed Egypt in the conflict and demanded that France and Britain leave Egypt. The Canadian Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson went to the United Nations and urged them to create an emergency force to keep peace between the combatants while an democratic agreement was formed. Pearson's request was granted and a UN emergency force was sent to the Suez Canal. Because of pressure from the UN and the United States, Britain and France were forced to withdraw from the area and give up the canal. Egypt ended up in control of the canal, and a major war was avoided. Later, Lester Pearson was avoided a Nobel Peace price for his efforts. Dallas Assassination of JFK The American president John F. Kennedy was being driven down a street on November 22 1963 when he was shot and killed. The assassination shocked the world, and was covered repeatedly by the media all around North America. Lee Oswald was charged with the assassination, but was killed in the Dallas police station two days later by a nightclub owner. There are many conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination, and if Oswald acted alone or not. The Vietnam War Before the Vietnam war, Northern Vietnam was a communist controlled country backed by the USSR, and Southern Vietnam was democratic and was backed by the United States. The two sides were already fighting when the US started sending ground troops to Vietnam in 1965. By December, almost 200,000 American troops were active in Vietnam. American involvement peaked in 1968 with over 500000 troops. The war was not going very well for the Americans. While they didn't lose much ground, casualties were high and the public started to turn against the war effort. Anti-war protests made the American government start to withdraw troops from Vietnam, and start a bombing campaign. In 1973 a ceasefire was finally reached and the American left Vietnam. North Vietnamese troops quickly occupied the rest of the county and the capital Saigon and united it under communist rule. Saigon Canada along with many other countries refused to be involved in the Vietnam conflict. The public was against them going to war, and they didn't have enough resources to make a difference in the outcome. After the cold war Igor Gouzenko wrote a book telling his story and did many interviews. He always wore a mask in fear that the Soviets would still be able to find him.
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