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Migrants - Changing Rights and Freedoms

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Natasha Burnett

on 10 September 2012

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Transcript of Migrants - Changing Rights and Freedoms

During World War II, the Australian Government realised there was a need for a larger population. There were a number of reasons for this:
• concern over a possible invasion. Australia’s small population would be unable to protect the coastline from an invasion
• a low birthrate during the 1930s meant fewer people joining the workforce
• death and injury to Australians who had fought in the war meant the existing workforce was now smaller
• a larger workforce was needed to continue the expansion of the manufacturing industry which had grown during the war. Changing Rights and Freedoms: Migrants To increase Australia’s population, the Federal Government introduced a new immigration policy in 1945, the `populate or perish’ policy.
The government thought that Australia would suffer unless there was an increase in the population - wanted about 70,000 migrants a year.
What type of migrants do you think Australia would have preferred?
The government encouraged non-British migrants (including Germany and Italy) to come to Aus. Immigration Minister Arthur Calwell said 'for every foreign migrant, there will be ten from the UK' Post WWII Why do you think there were low birthrates in the 1930's?
Who was close to invading Australia in WWII? Arthur Calwell traveled around the refugee camps of Europe (approx. 11 million homeless). He realised that the Aust. Govt. were reluctant for non-British migrants however he said they would not take Australian jobs and would help to stimulate the economy and create more jobs. I want you to think about when your ancestors came to Australia and create a poster that shows the history of your Ancestors - what countries did they come from, how did they get here, what traditions you still continue or keep, what you do for celebrations (eg Christmas, birthdays etc) Since October 1945, more than 7.2 million people have migrated to Australia—750 000 of these people arrived under the Humanitarian Program.

About one million migrants arrived in each of the six decades following 1950:
1.6 million between October 1945 and June 1960
about 1.3 million in the 1960s
about 960 000 in the 1970s
about 1.1 million in the 1980s
over 900 000 in the 1990s
over 1.2 million between 2000 and 2010.

Today, one in four of Australia's 22 million people were born outside Australia. http://www.smh.com.au/multimedia/misr/pappas.html Read the source on pg 295 and answer the 2 questions. Pre-1975 there were fewer than 2000 Vietnamese born people in Australia. In the following years this changed dramatically.
Australia signed the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees that stated it would take its share of Indochinese Refugees.

During the last part of the war, many Vietnamese were evacuated from Vietnam and taken to America and Australia. There was an operation called 'Baby Lift' were Indochinese orphans were evacuated and adopted into American and Australian families. Vietnamese Refugee's - Boat People Those who weren't lucky enough to be evacuated looked for other routes of escape. They were attempting to escape the communist regime in any way they could. This included families climbing aboard boats that were hardly seaworthy and overcrowded. A lot of boats did not make it due to pirates or sinking.
Most of the boats were headed to Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Hong Kong where refugee camps were set up to help accommodate and process the increasing number of Vietnamese refugees. Over 50 boats made it to the Northern Part of Australia, with the first boats landing in Darwin in 1976. Around 2000 refugees came to Australia in this way and claimed refugee status and wanted asylum.
The camps in Thailand, Maylasia etc were becoming overcrowded with unsanitary conditions and the camp not being able to cope with the amount of people.
1979 the United Nations stepped in to try and find a solution to the refugee problem. To stop more boat people avoiding official immigration channels, the Orderly Departure Program was set up and a resettlement program was started to empty the refugee camps http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/international/radio/program/connect-asia/asia-profile-vietnamese-australian-reflects-on-refugee-experience/963708 As relations between Vietnam and China deteriorated over Vietnam's relationship with the Soviet Union, people of Chinese ethnicity in Vietnam began to face persecution and so they too began to leave the country. In later years the economic situation became so poor in Vietnam that many people left to escape the poverty and hardship of living under a government that did not know how to run a peacetime economy. Why were they escaping? There was a large surge of Vietnam refugees from the late 70's.
There was a resurgance of refugee's coming in the 1980's which is largely thought to do with Australia's family reunion scheme. Over 90,000 refugee's were processed in this period.
During the 90's the amount of refugees was surpassed by the amount of Vietnamese migrants entering the country.
Vietnam is the 5th largest source of immigration to Australia and the 6th most spoken language at home.
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