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LBJ's Great Society
Transcript of LBJ's Great Society
Began under New Deal
Aimed to eliminate racial injustice in America
Funds provided for education and city infrastructure
Funding decreased on the social programs as the Vietnam War progressed Who was Lyndon B. Johnson? Graduated from Southwest State Teachers College in 1930.
Taught at a school for disadvantaged Mexican-American students in southern Texas.
Had firsthand look at the effects of poverty and discrimination Who was Lyndon B. Johnson Became President on Air Force One as he took Oath right after Kennedy’s death
Very familiar with the members of Congress
Spent most of his life with the house of Representatives and the Senate War on Poverty The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil Rights Act 1964 Summary: Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) Programs of EOA - Anti-poverty program created as a part of the EOA
- Fight poverty in low-income communities by engaging Americans in a year of full-time service
- VISTA members contribute by:
Encouraging volunteer service at the local level,
Generating the commitment of private sector resources
Strengthening organizations that serve low-income communities Voting Rights Act Effects of the Voting Rights Act Higher Education Act 1965 Housing Act 1964 Food Stamp Act (FSA) 1964 Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 1965 Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965 Public Broadcasting Act 1967 Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965 Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965 Congress had been trying to pass a school bill for all America’s children since 1870
Five million children of poor families overcome their greatest barrier to progress: poverty
Helped so many at so little cost Housing and Urban Development Act 1965 Vietnam and the Great Society Vietnam and the Great Society Activity 1 Activity 3- QUIZ!!! Activity 4 Medicare 1965 Refers to the first legislation passed by LBJ
In response to the 19% unemployment rate
Congress passed economic opportunity act
Office of Economic Opportunity was established
LBJ wanted to expand governments roles in health care and education Civil Rights The civil rights movement was gaining momentum
1964, urban riots began in black neighbourhoods
Johnson set out to pass the Civil Rights Bill which Kennedy had started
Cloture adopted by Hubert Humphreys: required 2/3 majority vote and limited debating per person
Signed on July 2, 1964 by Johnson Some facts:
African American life expectancy was 7 years less than whites
Nearly impossible for them to get a mortgage
Infant mortality rate was double Banned racial discrimination in federal funds and public places
Attempted to protect African Americans' right to vote
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was set up to protect African American's right for jobs
Community Relations Service set up to deal with racial problems at a local level The Civil Rights Act included:
Desegregation of public facilities
Desegregation of public education
Equal employment opportunity
Forbade discrimination based on sex, race, colour, religion Job Corps: provided work, basic education and training
Neighbourhood Youth Corps: provides work and training for young men and women 16-21 from poor families
Adult Basic Education: provides grants for programs of instruction for people 18+ who are illiterate (which displays their inability to get jobs) Ensured: poor had jobs, a good education, better place to live
Funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity
Provided basic education, work-study programs and tried to increase adult literacy
Somewhat successful, but when Vietnam War choked off funding, it slowly became a failure AmeriCorps VISTA Outlawed discriminatory voting practices which withdrew African American's right to vote
Prohibits any voting prerequisite or qualification beforehand
States with a discriminatory voting practice could not make changes to voting laws without the consent of the Department of Justice By 1968, nearly 60% of eligible African Americans were registered to vote in some southern states
Between 1965-1990 the number of African American state legislators and Congress members went from 2 to 160 Created to strengthen educational resources
Provide financial aid to students in higher levels of education
Assistance to smaller, not as developed colleges
Raised awareness of rising college tuition as higher education also became mandatory for good employment Arts and education being ignored
Gives a voice to educational radio & TV
New institution built Corporation for Public Broadcasting
Used federal funds to promote programming
Targeted children and minorities
Many adults grew up on PBS and NPR Designed by Commissioner of Education Francis Keppel
Passed on April 9, 1965
'Mother of all education programs’
Provided funding for all public schools in America.
Meet needs of educationally deprived children
Helped schools with highest percentage of disadvantaged students
Goal was to raise academic achievements Beginning of Head Start, Follow Through, and Bilingual Education Act Also called Hart-Cellar Act
Banned discrimination based on ethnicity
Allowed more individuals to enter US
People were to be welcomed because of their skill/professions General federal aid to categorical aid
Religious conflict by linking federal aid to educational programs
Reliance on state departments resulted in more government intervention
Amended in 1968 Shifted focus to non-European countries
LBJ and Kennedy hoped INA would
Gain auspicious international relations
Confirm America was a free country Immigrants considered for admittance based on skill or for family reunification
Signed by LBJ on October 3, 1965
Became a effective on June 30, 1968
Major contributor in ending discrimination First program held during Great Depression eliminated in 1943
JFK re-instituted a "pilot" food stamp program based on one during Depression Era.
Converted 1961 pilot food-stamp program into permanent program What is the Great Society “no child will go unfed, and no youngster will go unschooled”
“promote a sense of community and combat loneliness, boredom, and indifference”.
Acknowledged the voice and concerns of his people, fighting for their benefit and happiness.
Education, medical care, urban, and transportation programs GREAT SOCIETY Americans should live in a decent home in a safe neighbourhood
Exterminate slums and diseased areas
Helps enforce housing codes to prevent future damage
Training given to urban developers Supports community development
Promotes house ownership
Increased safe and affordable rental options
Responsibility for housing policy went to Robert C. Weaver
1965, political problems and differences of personality and expectations led to a difficult time in LBJ and Weaver's relationship Deprived Great Society of reforms and money
Funds for the War on Poverty diverted to Vietnam War
Conservatives and liberals had different perspectives on how the funds were to be spent
LBJ wanted to fight poverty as well as show superiority in North Vietnam
Believed he could have both guns and butter
"We are a country which was built by pioneers who had a rifle in one hand and an ax in the other...We can do both. And as long as I am president we will do both." Vietnam War costs along with the expenditures of his domestic programs strained the economy
Johnson lost the political wealth needed to continue reforms
Americans felt that he had failed in the handling of domestic and foreign affairs If you could change the way school works, how would you change it?
What rules would you remove/add? (no homework doesn't count...)
In your opinion, what does an ideal school look like?
What could be some of problems of going with your ideas? What was the goal of the Great Society?
What is 'War on Poverty'?
Name 2 Acts passed Why and how did LBJ fail in terms of supporting the Great Society?
What do you think his biggest contribution is to American society? (Which act do you feel made the greatest difference)
How do you think America viewed him after the funds started to pour into Vietnam? What are the different perspectives? Food Stamp Act (FSA) 1964 •By April 1965, half-a-million poor people were buying food stamps.
•February 1970, 4 million.
•March 1970 – one month later
•February 1971, 10 million.
•October 1974, 15 million. Food Stamp Act (FSA) 1964 Major revision with support of President Jimmie Carter-1977
Allowed the poor to be given food stamps
Still known as Food Stamps July 30, 1965
Provides affordable healthcare insurance to seniors (+65)
Part of Social Security Act
Funded by federal government
20 million beneficiaries enrolled in first three years
Hospital and healthcare costs rising Medicaid 1965 State and federally funded program
Offers health coverage to poor
Amendment to Social Security Act Vietnam and the Great Society Manpower, industrial resources, and money was being devoted to the Vietnam War
$680 million would go toward helping over 9 million people but instead, but only $200 million could be spent to help less than 3 million people
"I will not be the first president to lose a war" The Five Issues LBJ believed that in order to combat poverty, he needed to attack the issues within these categories that contributed to making citizens poor
Employment Research Question To what extent was the Great Society successful in solving the issue of poverty? (Think about the 5 main issues to combat poverty)
Should the funding of the programs in the Great Society have been reduced as a result of the Vietnam War? Activity 5: LBJ CROSSWORD Link to printable crossword: http://www.armoredpenguin.com/crossword/bin/crossword.cgi?cmd=solve&filefrag=2013.05/2920/29202937.870.html
Link to solving online: http://www.armoredpenguin.com/crossword/bin/crossword.cgi?cmd=solve&filefrag=2013.05/2920/29202937.870.html