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Transcript of Jacob Kounin
02/13/2013 1. Ripple Effect
4. Effective Transitions
7. Group Alerting Charles, C. M., & Senter, G. W. (2012). Elementary classroom management. (6th ed., p. 195). New York, NY: Pearson.
Discipline theorists. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.elearnportal.com/courses/education/classroom-management-and-discipline/classroom-management-and-discipline-discipline-theorists.
Gropper, G. L., & Smith, B. O. (1974). A new approach to classroom control. Contemporary Psychology, 19(2), 94-96.
Hager, M. (2012). discipline and group management in the classroom. Retrieved from http://www.geschichte-erforschen.de/unterricht/kounin/index.htm.
Kounin, J. S., & Gump, P. V. (1958). The ripple effect in discipline. The Elementary School Journal, 59(3), 158-162. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/999319.
Manning, M. L., & Bucher, K. T. (2007). Exploring the theories of instructional management - Jacob Kounin. In Classroom Management: Models, Applications, and Cases (2nd ed.). Pearson.
Van Der Sijde, P. C., & Tomic, W. (1993). A model for classroom management activities. Education, 113(3), 439. Classroom applications of "withitness" include:
Continually being alert
Arranging the classroom so that all students are always within eyesight
When helping an individual student, the teacher faces the rest of the class
Briefly acknowledging student misbehavior at first detection Kounin did not believe that teachers' personality traits are important in classroom management. He insisted that teachers' ability to manage groups and lessons is most important. When a teacher corrects the misbehavior of one individual student and positively influences the behavior of other nearby students Kounin specifically focused on preventative classroom and lesson management techniques. Major Ideas References Ripple Effect The "Ripple Effect" is greater when the teacher clearly names the unacceptable behavior of the student and provides the reasons why the behavior is unacceptable. Biography Born: January 17, 1912 in Cleveland, Ohio
Graduated from Iowa State University in 1936 with a PhD
His wife Beatrice was an elementary school teacher
In 1946, he started his work as an educational psychologist at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI
In 1970, he wrote book titled "Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms" publishing his research findings
Died: October 7, 1995 at the age of 83 in Palm Beach, FL Kounin is most famous for his studies that took place in the 1970s concerning discipline and group management in the classroom. Kounin was the first theorist to present a detailed analysis of the effects of classroom and lesson management on student behavior. Overlapping: the "proverbial eyes in the back of the head" Effective Transitions:
Related to at least 3 factors:
the newness of the situation
the behavior of the watching children
the clarity, the firmness, and roughness of the disciplinary technique Momentum:
The force and flow of a lesson. Having a steady sense of movement throughout the lesson helps engage the learners in activities and helps prevent student misbehavior. Smoothness:
Maintaining direction in the lesson and not being diverted by irrelevant incidents.
Focus: making sure students know what they are supposed to do and why
Variety: variations in seat work
Student Accountability: ask goal-directed questions; check student work; have students answer other students' questions
Pacing: timing that ensures efficient coverage of activities and ending at the appropriate time Group Alerting Engaging the attention of the whole class while individuals are responding. Keep lessons moving with avoiding abrupt changes
Have well established routines
Have a consistent signal for gaining the class's attention
Use clear directions
Prepare students to shift their attention from one task to another
Use concise explanations that highlight the main points of the task to help reduce student misbehavior OTHER SKILLS: look at a student or mention his or her name
propose an alternative behavior
let the student describe the desired behavior