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Unit 2: Physiology of fitness

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Nathan Horsfield

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Unit 2: Physiology of fitness

Nathan Horsfield Unit 2: The physiology of fitness. Musculoskeletal system. Increased blood supply Increase in muscle pliability Increased range of movement Muscle fibre micro tears Energy Systems Energy Systems Respiratory responses Our musculoskeletal system is made up of the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons and cartilage. Our body is supported by these and also they enable us to move. The different parts of your body and skeleton are under the control of the musculoskeletal system which allows you to move. Impulses are sent from the nervous system to cause the muscles to contract. When a muscles contracts it shortens and pulls on the bone it is attached too. The skeletal system is the framework of the body but muscles make the fleshy part. Our muscles help us to move, maintain our posture and posture. Short term effect of the increased temperature of muscles. As a result this then increases the contractions in the muscle and during exercise there is a higher demand of oxygen. The increase of blood supply is achieved by the capillaries then dilating and allowing more blood to flow through. This will happen through any warm up. During a marathon an athlete will always need a higher blood supply as the muscles will be constantly working throughout the event and will need a higher amount of oxygen and nutrients. The working muscles need this oxygen for muscle contractions as oxygen is the will help to provide the energy, it also means that lactic acid and carbon dioxide to stop the athlete from becoming fatigued. Every movement we make requires energy. There are 3 ways in which energy is produced is determined by how long and how intense the activity is. Movements such as jumping and throwing requires large amounts of energy over a short period of time. However, marathon running requires a continued supply of energy over a longer period of time but this energy is produced at a much slower rate than when sprinting. The energy systems of the body facilitate these processes. Energy is required for our muscle fibres to contracts Energy is obtained from the food we eat like carbs, fats and proteins When these substances are burned ATP is form which is rich in energy. ATP is broken down gives off energy for the muscle contraction. Contractions are made from 3 different energy systems; Creatine Phosphate, Lactic Acid and Aerobic energy systems. FOOD = ENERGY Carbs
Proteins Digestion Glucose
Fatty Acids
Amino Acids Creatine Phosphate system: This is the immediate energy system. ATP and creatine phosphate make up the ATP-PCr system. Creatine phosphate (PCr) is a high energy compound. When the excercise intensity is high the energy needs to be instantaneous, creatine phosphate stored in the muscles is broken down to make ATP. This is an anaerobic process as it doesn't use oxygen to create the ATP.
ATP is a molecule which is the source of energy production.
Formula - ADP + creatine phosphate -> ATP + Creatine. This energy system is going to be used throughout a 100m sprint or for an athlete that is in the shot put taking their throw. Both of the sports will use this system as they last for less than 10 seconds are explosive contractions that need the energy very quickly in order to do the contractions needed.
Lactic Acid system: This is another short term energy system, this energy systems takes over from the creatine phosphate after 10 seconds and lasts up to 60-90 seconds. This system is an anaerobic energy system as it works without the presence of oxygen. This systems gets it's fuel from glucose and glycogen that has been partially broke down. A sport that would use this energy system would be the 200 & 400m sprints as they last for longer than 10 seconds but do not run over 60 seconds. T\he contractions that are involved involved in these event are still quick but not as explosive as the creatine phosphate system.
Formula - Glucose - 2ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
Glycogen - 3ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
Aerobic system: This is the long energy system that the body uses for during longer exercising like running a marathon or when competing in a triathlon. This energy system uses glycogen and fatty acids to produce the oxygen and this then creates carbon dioxide and water as bi-products. This process takes longer as the blood and oxygen has to come from the heart and it takes longer to break down oxygen as an energy source. A sport that would use this system is a marathon runner as they will need energy for a long period of time working at quite a high intensity.
Formula - Glucose + oxygen -> 38 ATP + CO2 + H2O
Fatty acids + oxygen -> 129 ATP + CO2 + H2O Cardiovascular Response Energy Continuum The body's energy systems rarely work on their own so the energy continuum explain how the body changes from using one system onto the others for activities that then break the limits of the previous system. All 3 of the systems work continuously but the proportion of the energy produced by each systems differs as the exercise carries on.
The intensity and duration will determine the system which is predominant.
Energy requirements.
Archery: Archery only uses the creatine phosphate system as it is only a short time when taking the shot, taking the shot will only take a maximum of 10 seconds and only requires a short burst of energy to do the required movements for taking the shot.
Football: Football will use all 3 energy systems as players will have to do a short sprint when chasing a ball that has been played in front of them, also they will have to sprint when tracking the player they're marking if they have lost them. It uses the lactic acid system when having to sprint from their own goal toward the half way line or further then having to turn back and sprint back to their own goal if they have lost possession of the ball. Energy continuum 200m sprint: The 200m sprint will use the the creatine phosphate and the lactic acid system. It will firstly use the creatine phosphate as it will be a full sprint for the first 10 seconds and then for the second part of the race it will have to then change and move into the lactic acid system.
Ice hockey: During ice hockey all three energy systems are going to be used, the creatine phosphate will be used when taking a shot or passing the puck to a teammate, the lactic acid system will be used if skating from one side of the rink to the other in quick succession and the aerobic energy system is going to be used to provide energy for the whole duration of the game. During exercise your muscles which contract will require a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients which is carried in the blood. This means that the cardiovascular system will have to pump round more blood to ensure that the working muscles have sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
Heart Rate Anticipatory Response: The nerves that supply the heart and chemicals in our blood rapidly alter the heart rate, this causes nutrients and more oxygen to the working muscles before a race. Our body will start to anticipate the physical activity that is about to happen and will prepare the body for it. The greatest heart rate anticipatory is before a short sprinting event like the 100m.
Activity response: The anticipatory rise will occur at the start of exercise or even slightly before the nerve centers in our brain detect the cardiovascular activity. These result in adjustment from the cardiovascular system to help through physical activity by increasing the heart rate and pumping strength of the heart. At the same time the regional blood flow is changed to the right proportion to the intensity of the activity. Cardiovascular responses When participating on exercise this makes our muscles warmer and this makes our muscles more pliable.This relates to how stretchy our muscles are, As our muscles are pliable this the reduces the risk of injury occurring. An example of this will be in gymnastics as the gymnast will need to be as flexible as possible as most movements will need a form of muscle pliability. The short term effects of exercise on our skeletal system are demonstrated by changes within joints. Movement of the joints stimulates the secretion of synovial fluids, this fluid is viscous which gives out a higher range of movement at the joint. Viscous is the measure of the resistance (thickness) of a fluid.
A good example of this is during gymnastics, when on the rings as they will need a wide range of movement as their shoulders will be moving throughout the routine. During football a goalkeeper will need a wide range of movement when diving for the ball, coming to claim a cross or when coming to close down the angle of a 1v1 situation. Also basketball players will need a wide range of movement as they will need to change direction quickly also the will have to be jumping for rebounds and crossing over when with a defender. When we exercise muscles become under stress, because of the stress muscles begin to micro tears within the muscle if there is a sufficient fuel for rest and repair of the muscle. Then when it is repaired the muscles will increase in size. For example after going to the gym and resting for the day after, the muscle will then repair themselves and become stronger and bigger in size. The advantage of having stronger muscles in weightlifting would be that the athlete will be able to lift more weight than their opponents giving them a better chance of winning. Also in football it means that a defender will be able to shield the ball from a striker when the ball is running to go out of play. Increased blood pressure: Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of our blood vessels and result in 2 forces, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the blood being pumped from the heart through the arteries and around the body. Diastolic is the pressure when the heart is relaxing. During exercise the cardio output increases significantly. During aerobic exercise oxygen consumption will increase alongside heart rate and in proportion the intensity of the activity. This causes an increase in blood pressure as the blood is moving quicker through the blood vessels moving more oxygenated blood to the working muscles for the muscle contractions. This is good in marathon running as the runner will need oxygen in the working muscles for a long time whilst running at higher intensities.
Vasodilation & Vasoconstriction: During exercise the working muscles will require more oxygen which is carried in the bloodstream. To allow for more oxygen to be taken to the working muscles vasodilation and vasoconstriction have to occur. Vasodilation is opening of the blood vessels to allow more blood to flow through allowing more oxygen to be carried to the working muscles. Vasoconstriction is the blood vessels closing to restrict the blood flow going to muscles that aren't working as oxygen being taken to these muscles is going to be wasted so the vessels leading to the gut muscles for example, the vessels are closed as they wont require as much as oxygen as they wont be working as much as muscles in the legs and arms when running a marathon during a 200m swim. This means that more blood can flow to the muscles in the arms and legs giving them more oxygen and nutrients to stop them from fatiguing and keep them working at a high intensity. Respiratory responses will be a greater depth of breathing as the demand of oxygen and nutrients will be increased. To allow this to happen capillaries will expand to increase the blood flow around the body due to the increase in demand of oxygen and nutrients. Also another reason why the breathing becomes greater in depth is to remove CO2 as this is made as a waste product during exercise and must be removed.
Increased breathing rate: In the body there are chemoreceptors which pick up changes in the blood around the working muscles like changes in the CO2 levels, acidity in the blood and the pH level. After they are picked up by the chemoreceptors a message is sent to the medulla, from the medulla an impulse is sent to the respiratory muscles telling them to work harder to remove the waste products from the body and working muscles. When stopping exercise another impulse is sent from the medulla to the respiratory muscles to tell them to stop working as hard as the CO2 levels, acidity and pH have decreased. Before starting a football match breathing will become deeper as of nerves so more oxygen will increase taking more oxygen to the muscles, during the game the breathing rate will eventually plateau as it can't keep increasing, after the game breathing will slow down until returning to the resting rate.
Tidal Volume (TV): Tidal volume is the volume of air breathed in and out in one breath. During exercise TV will increase to allow more air to pass through the body helping remove waste products and help get more oxygen around the body as once oxygen is depleted from the body the TV deepens to compensate. This is an advantage in sport as it will keep a good supply of oxygen going to the muscles and remove more waste products. A good example of this is in basketball when toward the end of the game when breathing is deep and muscles are needing more and more oxygen as they are tiring.
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