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Motivation: Understanding Self and Others
Transcript of Motivation: Understanding Self and Others
the amount of time a person devotes to the chosen activity (e.g. refinishing antiques)
wide range from numerous hours to barely any at all (e..g high end will return to task over and over in order to get desired results)
Individual Differences - Diversity
Create environments that are able to:
Foster and enhance growth of participants in terms of their own perceptions, needs, aspirations, and self-fulfillment
Accept the fact that individuals differ from one another and that diversity can be a source of great strength
Individual and Group Motivation
Members always act as a member of a group
Group's dynamics are described by group cohesion and morale
Power of group norms is accepted and seen at Western Electric Studies
Patterns of Motivation
Why people do what they do?
While many theories exist, three motivational patterns are evident
Extrinsic (Behaviorist) Views
Carrot and stick approach
People can be motivated through manipulation of positive/negative reinforces (e.g. merit pay plans, demands for accountability, annual performance reviews)
Universities often practice an up-or-out policy to motivate newly appointed junior faculty members (e.g. given a number of years to publish works - at end either tenure or dismissed)
Motivation: Understanding Self and Others
Chapter 5, Organizational Behavior in Education
First Pattern: Direction in Making Choices
Occurs when an individual is confronted with an array of alternatives
Whenever a person attends to one thing
rather than others when there is no cause to the choice that was made
Third Pattern: Intensity
Ranges from high energy to little/none at all
Factors beyond the control of the individual may be involved such as environment and skill of individual
(e.g. social climate not being conducive to participation)
Argues that people are controlled by external forces such as rewards/punishments, but motivation lies within individuals themselves
The internal capacities (primarily emotional/cognitive)
give rise to feelings, aspirations, perceptions, attitudes and thoughts that motivate or non-motivate.
Belief is that motivation is tapping the inner drives of people by creating growth-enhancing environments.
Illumination/Relay Inspection Studies
Workers responded to their perceptions of the expectations - not to the changes in physical environment -- result was a psychological phenomena or the Hawthorne effect
Elton Mayo discovered that productivity continued to rise regardless of work conditions to include eliminating special work lunch periods, rest pauses and shorter working day/week
CENTRAL FINDINGS OF STUDIES
1. Workers liked the experiment - thought it was fun
2. New supervision allowed for free/anxiety free workplace
3. Workers knew that work was important and results were
4. Workers were consulted about planned changes
5. Group itself had changed and developed during course of
women were made to feel they were an important part of the company.... they became participating members of a congenial, cohesive work group
Set the stage for the widespread research to better understand needs of human behavior to make for a more effective organization.
Gardner suggests there are several kinds of intelligence (independent of one another)
Psychology must be built around the person, personality, growth, and fate -- self-growth was key
We must place ourselves inside the heads of our students and try to understand as far as possible the sources and strengths of their conceptions. ~
Howard Gardner, The Unschooled Mind
Cognitive and Humanistic perspective
Cognitive - people are motivated by a need for order, predictability, sensibleness, and logic in dealing with the world -- equilibrium according to Piaget.
Atkinson/McClelland's thoughts -- Achievement/competition/avoid failure - those who seek to avoid failure are often highly motivated (n-Ach), (n-Pow), (n-Affil)
Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Efficacy
Bandura's suggested that individuals can make things happen by taking action. People will do what they believe they are capable of doing -- self efficacy. Also called expectancy theory of motivation which derives from four sources
Temperament and Organizational Behavior
Carl Jung - individuals are motivated by different inner forces with a wide variation
Extraversion vs. Introversion
Sensation vs. Intuition
Thinking vs. Feeling
Isabel Myers and Katheryn Briggs added...
Judging vs. Perceiving
Dealing with outside world
Personal need to constantly develop, cultivate self-esteem, have satisfying human relationships are highly motivating drives. Thus, there is no such thing as an unmotivated person.
Maslow: Hierarchy of needs
Herzberg's two-factor theory
Motivational (motivators) factors
- lead to job satisfaction (i.e. achievement, recognition, growth, etc...)
Maintentance (hygiene) factors
- must be present in sufficient amounts in order for motivational factors to come into play -- they can block motivation and lead to job dissatisfaction
Integration of Maslow and Herzberg
Central difference is that Maslow thought of every need as a potential motivator (in hierarchical order) where Herzberg argued that only the higher order needs are truly motivating.
Maslow was a general theory of motivaiton where Herzberg focused specifically on motivation in the workplace
VERBAL PERSUASION 101